Selected Patents 2013

The Editor: Scott Bloomer

The following list contains brief details of current patents, which appeared to the editor to be especially relevant. Inevitably, there is an element of subjectivity in the choice. Topics included in the list are based on the Divisions of the AOCS and the topical sessions held at the AOCS annual meetings. Patents are listed here at intervals as they are published in Inform.

Amorphous adsorbent, method of obtaining the same and its use in the bleaching of fats and/or oils (Ortiz Niembro, J.A., et al., Süd-Chemie AG, US8394975, March 12, 2013).

The invention relates to a method for producing an adsorbent, in particular a bleaching earth, wherein a clay material having: a surface area of 180–300 m2/g; a total pore volume of 0.5–0.7 mL/L; wherein at least 60% of the total pore volume is provided by pores having a pore diameter of at least 140 Å, at least 40% of the total pore volume is provided by pores having a pore diameter of less than 250 Å, and at least 15% of the total pore volume is provided by pores having a pore diameter of 140–250 Å; and said clay material having an amorphous structure according to X-ray diffraction data; is activated by an activation procedure. Further, the invention relates to an adsorbent as obtained by the method and a method for purification of oils, fats, and biofuels.

Neutralization process (Weismantel, M., et al., BASF SE, US8410235, April 2, 2013).

The invention relates to a neutralization process in which at least one ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid is neutralized at least partly with a base and at least one stream of the neutralization is determined continuously, and also to an apparatus for carrying out the process.

Water-based mud lubricant using fatty acid polyamine salts and fatty acid esters (Xiang, T., and R.A.M. Amin, Baker Hughes Inc., US8413745, April 9, 2013).

Water-based drilling mud lubricants using a blend of fatty acid polyamine salts and fatty acid esters give synergistically better lubricity results than either component used separately. For example, the blends with different ratios of fatty acid diethylenetriamine salt and fatty acid methyl ester demonstrate much better lubricity in water-based drilling fluids than those where only fatty acid diethylenetriamine salt or fatty acid methyl ester are separately used. The amines in fatty acid amine salt might also include other polyamines, such as butanediamine pentamethylenediamine, spermidine, spermine, propylene diamine, and propylene polyamines. The fatty acid esters might also include fatty acid ethyl ester, fatty acid glycerol ester, and fatty acid trimethylolpropane ester. The carbon numbers of the fatty acids used to make the components in the lubricant blend may range from C4 to C28.

Enzymatic modification of oil (Kralovec, J.A., et al., Ocean Nutrition Canada Ltd., US8420349, April 16, 2013).

The disclosed subject matter relates generally to a method for modifying oil, and specifically to a process for increasing the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid in an oil composition.

Chewable soft capsule having improved ingestion property and method for producing same (Shodai, H., et al., Shionogi & Co., Ltd., US8372428, February 12, 2013).

A soft capsule in which a shell is filled with fill material, and the fill material is in a solid or semi-solid form at room temperature. The soft capsule may be a chewable capsule, and the fill material may comprise a low melting point additive. The content of the low melting point additive may be 10% or more with respect to the total weight of the fill material, and may have a melting point of about 20–50°C. The low melting point additive may be selected from the group consisting of chocolate base, lard, coconut oil, and macrogol (polyethylene glycol) as well as a combination thereof.

Method for producing a soluble cocoa product from cocoa powder (Bernaert, H., et al., Barry Callebaut AG, US8372456, February 12, 2013).

The present invention relates to a method for producing a soluble cocoa product from cocoa powder comprising the steps: (i) preparing an aqueous suspension of cocoa powder (1), (ii) treating said suspension with one or more degrading enzymes (2), (iii) submitting (3) the suspension obtained in step (ii) to a pH treatment comprising treating said suspension for at least 2 hours at a suitable pH, a temperature of at least 100°C, and a pressure which is at least 1 bar higher than the ambient pressure, (iv) optionally bringing the pH of the suspension obtained in step (iii) to a pH value corresponding with the pH of the suspension obtained in step (i), (v) treating (4) the suspension obtained in step (iii) or (iv) with one or more degrading enzymes, (vi) separating (6) the suspension (5) obtained in step (v) into insoluble material (8) and a soluble part (7), and (vii) obtaining soluble cocoa components (10) from the soluble parts (7). The present invention further relates to cocoa products obtained by the present method and use thereof.

Method for making a rolled snack food product having a light, crispy texture (Crosby, T.G., et al., Frito-Lay North America, Inc., US8377493, February 19, 2013).

A method for making a cooked rolled dough snack food from a starch-based dough. The starch-based dough is admixed with a small average particle size monoglyceride. The dough is then rolled and cooked in hot oil. The fatty acid chain is disposed within the helical amylose molecules in the starch-based dough and provides structural support within the helix. This support helps control inward expansion of the rolled dough snack during frying.

Process for producing methyl esters (Lemke, D.W., US8378132, February 19, 2013).

Transesterification systems and methods for producing methyl ester are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method for producing methyl ester includes introducing a first charge into a reactor. The first charge contains a triglyceride-containing fat and an alcohol. The method can also include performing a first transesterification reaction in which the triglyceride-containing fat is reacted with the alcohol to produce a first product. The method can further include settling the first product into a methyl ester-containing layer and a glycerol-containing layer, decanting the glycerol-containing layer after settling from the reactor, mixing a second charge with the first product, and performing a second transesterification reaction after mixing the second charge with the first product.

Method for producing fatty acid alkyl ester (Abe, H., et al., Kao Corp., US8378133, February 19, 2013).

The present invention provides a method for producing a fatty acid alkyl ester, including step 1 of adding at least one surfactant selected from anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, and amphoteric surfactants, and water to a crude fatty acid alkyl ester and stirring to obtain a mixture containing aggregates, and step 2 of separating the aggregates from the mixture from step 1 so that the removal rate of steryl glucoside is 60% or more.

Expression of fatty acid desaturases in corn (Ursin, V., et al., Monsanto Technology LLC, US8378186, February 19, 2013).

The invention relates generally to the expression of desaturase enzymes in transgenic corn plants and compositions derived therefrom. In particular, the invention relates to the production of oils with improved omega-3 fatty acid profiles in corn plants and the seed oils produced thereby. Such oils may contain stearidonic acid, which is not naturally found in corn plants and has been shown to have beneficial effects on health.

Laminating adhesives based on triglyceride-derived polyols (Simons, J.B., Henkel Corp., US8382937, February 26, 2013).

Natural oils, fats, and other fatty acid triglycerides are transesterified with polyalcohols such as trimethylolpropane or glycerol to yield polyhydroxyl-functionalized reaction products that are useful materials in the formulation of two-component laminating adhesives.

Dielectric fluid composition containing vegetable oils and free of antioxidants (Aranda Cotero, J., et al., US8383020, February 26, 2013).

A dielectric fluid composition containing 60–63% in weight of monounsaturated fatty acid, of 20–23% in weight of di-unsaturated fatty acid, of 5–7% in weight of tri-unsaturated fatty acid, and of 6–8% in weight of saturated fatty acid, such that the dielectric fluid is free of antioxidants and/or external additives and has the following properties: a dielectric strength of 40 kV to 70 kV at a separation of 2 mm, a dielectric constant of 2.5–3.1 at 25°C, and a dissipation factor of 0.05–0.15% at 25°C. The dielectric fluid composition can be obtained by a combination of 95.5% to 99.25% in weight of at least one high-oleic vegetable oil, of 0.25% to 1.5% in weight of grapeseed oil, of 0.25% to 1.5% in weight of sesame seed oil, and of 0.25% to 1.5% in weight of rice bran oil.

Compositions for oral administration of active principles requiring masking of taste (Chacornac, I., and P. Probeck, Sanofi, US8383146, February 26, 2013).

A process for the preparation of a composition intended for the oral administration of active principles with unacceptable taste, which comprises from about 15% to 30% of organoleptically unpleasant active ingredient (principle) that is mixed with from about 60% to about 80% of an ester of glycerol or of a fatty acid, to which a wax is optionally added and to which a surfactant is added, and in that it is prepared by a spray-cooling process which can produce a particle size of less than 350 µm.

Process for the enrichment of methyl ricinoleate from castor oil methyl esters by liquid-liquid extraction (Rao, K.V.S.A., et al., Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, US8383847, February 26, 2013).

The present invention provides a process for the enrichment of methyl ricinoleate from castor oil methyl esters by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in presence of refined vegetable oils using an aqueous polar solvent. The invention provides an extraction of methyl ricinoleate by a nondestructive extraction method with good yields (75–90%) and purity (95–99%). The method consists of mixing castor oil methyl esters in a refined normal vegetable oil (feed) in a suitable proportion and selective extraction of methyl ricinoleate in a nondestructive manner by LLE using a polar aqueous solvent, followed by desolventization and drying of the solute to get an enriched methyl ricinoleate fraction with good yields. The nonhydroxy fatty acid methyl esters of castor oil methyl esters are retained in the vegetable oil and can be used for the preparation of biodiesel or oleochemicals or reused in the process for the enrichment of methyl ricinoleate after removing the hydroxyl fatty acid either by distillation under reduced pressure or further by LLE using pure solvent.

Production of acid soluble soy protein isolates ("S700") (Schweizer, M., et al., Burcon Nutrascience (MB) Corp., US8389040, March 5, 2013).

A soy protein product having a protein content of at least about 60 wt% (N∙6.25) d.b., preferably an isolate having a protein content of at least about 90 wt% (N∙6.25) d.b., is formed by extracting a soy protein source with a salt solution, preferably aqueous sodium chloride solution, to form an aqueous protein solution having a pH of about 1.5–11, preferably about 5 to about 7 and separating the resulting aqueous protein solution from residual soy protein source. The protein concentration of the aqueous protein solution is increased to about 50–400 g/L while the ionic strength is maintained substantially constant by using a selective membrane technique. The resulting concentrated protein solution is optionally diafiltered and a calcium salt, preferably calcium chloride, is added to the concentrated and optionally diafiltered protein solution to a conductivity of 15 mS to about 85 mS. Precipitate formed as a result of the calcium salt addition is removed and the resulting clarified retentate is diluted into about 2 to about 20 volumes of water prior to acidification to a pH of about 1.5 to about 4.4 to produce an acidified clear protein solution. The acidified clear protein solution is then concentrated and optionally diafiltered and optionally dried. Variations of this procedure can be used to produce a soy protein product that is soluble, transparent, and heat stable in acidic aqueous environments.

Use of carboxylic acid esters as a fragrance substance (Panten, J., et al., Symrise AG, US8389466, March 5, 2013).

A description is provided of the use of certain carboxylic acid esters as a fragrance substance, preferably as a fragrance substance for conveying, modifying, and/or intensifying one, two, or all the fragrance notes fruity and green, preferably both the fragrance notes fruity and green.

Fractionation method of 1, 3-disaturated-2-unsaturated triglyceride (Arimoto, S., et al., The Nisshin OilliO Group, Ltd., US8389754, March 5, 2013).

The present invention discloses a method of producing triglycerides rich in XOX [where X = a saturated fatty acid residue; O = oleoyl group; L = linoleoyl group] fat and/or XLX fat, which comprises the steps of heating and dissolving triglycerides (XOX fat and/or XLX fat) which comprise 20–60 mass% of a triglyceride having a saturated fatty acid residue on each of the first and third position and an oleoyl group and/or a linoleoyl group on the second position in total triglycerides in the presence of 1–30 mass% of a fatty acid lower alkyl ester; and then cooling the mixture to precipitate crystals and conducting solid-liquid separation. This method is a more efficient and industrially suitable fractionation and production method of fats and oils which are rich in a triglyceride (XOX fat and/or XLX fat) having a saturated fatty acid residue on each of the first and third position and an oleoyl group and/or linoleoyl group on the second position.

Lipase-containing polymeric coatings for the facilitated removal of fingerprints (Buthe, A., et al., Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc., US8394618, March 12, 2013).

A substrate or coating is provided that includes a lipase with enzymatic activity toward a component of a fingerprint. Also a process for facilitating the removal of fingerprints is provided wherein an inventive substrate or coating including a lipase is capable of enzymatically degrading of one or more components of the fingerprint to facilitate fingerprint removal from the substrate or said coating. Applying heat to the substrate or coating increases the rate of fingerprint removal.

Process for producing esterified propoxylated glycerin (Strecker, L., et al., Choco Finesse LLC, US8354551, January 15, 2013).

Highly pure esterified propoxylated glycerin suitable for use as a fat substitute in various foodstuffs may be efficiently manufactured using a process involving direct esterification of propoxylated glycerin with excess fatty acid, bleaching, deacidification/deodorization, and treatment with activated carbon.

Plant acyltransferases specific for long-chained, multiply unsaturated fatty acids (Renz, A., et al., University of Bristol, US8354569, January 15, 2013).

The invention relates to a process for the production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in an organism by introducing, into the organism, nucleic acids coding for polypeptides with acyltransferase activity. These nucleic acid sequences, if appropriate together with further nucleic acid sequences coding for polypeptides of the fatty acid or lipid metabolism biosynthesis, can advantageously be expressed in the organism. Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for the production of oils and/or triacylglycerides with an elevated content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The invention furthermore relates to the nucleic acid sequences, and constructs, vectors and organisms comprising the nucleic acid sequences. A further part of the invention relates to oils, lipids, and/or fatty acids produced by the process according to the invention and to their use.

Catalyst and method for producing carboxylic acid and/or carboxylic anhydride in the presence of the catalyst (Okamoto, A., Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., US8357625, January 22, 2013).

An object of the present invention is to provide a catalyst exhibiting excellent performance particularly in partial oxidation reaction. Another object is to provide a method for efficiently producing carboxylic acid or carboxylic anhydride through vapor-phase partial oxidation of an organic compound by use of an oxygen-containing gas in the presence of the catalyst. The catalyst contains (i) diamond; (ii) at least one species selected from among Group 5 transition element oxides, collectively called oxide A; and (iii) at least one species selected from among Group 4 transition element oxides, collectively called oxide B. The method for producing a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic anhydride includes subjecting an organic compound to vapor phase partial oxidation by use of an oxygen-containing gas in the presence of the catalyst, wherein the organic compound is an aromatic compound having one or more substituents in a molecule thereof, the substituents each including a carbon atom bonded to an aromatic ring.

Method for preparing chocolates and/or chocolate-/cocoa-flavored compositions (Bouvier, P., and V. Detalle, Barry Callebaut AG, US8357418, January 22, 2013).

The invention relates to a computer-aided method for preparing chocolates and/or chocolate-/cocoa-flavored compositions from a bank of ingredients Pj using tools such as a valuation system E which can be used to assign a numerical value vij to the taste descriptor Gi of each ingredient Pj and a function f designating the set of rules that can be used to calculate the values vic characterizing the taste of a combination C of chocolates. The invention also relates to a device for performing the inventive method.

Composition comprising triglycerides (Zand, I., and H. Slager, Loders Croklaan B.V., US8357421, January 22, 2013).

A composition comprising triglycerides may be used as a coating fat. The triglyceride content of the composition comprises: SSS in an amount of from 10 to 20%; SUS in an amount of from 45 to 65%; SSU in an amount of from 10 to 18%; SU2 in an amount of less than 15%; and S2U in an amount of greater than 70%; wherein: the weight ratio of SUS/SSU is from 3:1 to 6:1; S is a saturated fatty acid residue having from 12 to 24 carbon atoms; U is an unsaturated fatty acid residue having from 12 to 24 carbon atoms; and all percentages are by weight based on the total triglycerides present in the composition.

Lubricants derived from plant and animal oils and fats  (Benecke, H., et al., Battelle Memorial Institute, US8357643, January 22, 2013).

A lubricant from plant and/or animal oils and fats; methods for producing a lubricating oil, and the oil produced thereby. The lubricant is derived from an animal or plant fat or oil having an iodine number above about 7, and produced by epoxidizing the fat or oil and (i) reacting the epoxidized fat or oil with a carboxylic acid anhydride in the presence of a basic catalyst to produce a diester, or (ii) hydrogenating the epoxidized fat or oil to generate mono-alcohols and acylating the alcohol functionality with acid anhydrides, acid chlorides, or carboxylic acids to produce a mono-ester.

Prostaglandin fat emulsion, method for producing the same, method for stabilizing the same, and emulsifying agent (Kamiya, S., et al., Q.P. Corp., US8334321, December 18, 2012).

A fat emulsion comprises a prostaglandin as an active ingredient, the fat emulsion comprising a phospholipid that comprises phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and has a ratio of PC to PG (PC/PG) of 85:15 to 99.7:0.3.

Rinse-off personal care compositions (Tao, B., et al., The Procter & Gamble Company, US8338349, December 25, 2012).

The present invention relates to a cleanser composition comprising (i) from about 1% to about 20% of fatty acid soap containing from about 8 to about 16 carbon atoms; (ii) from about 2% to about 20% of a synthetic surfactant; and (iii) water, wherein the composition comprises a metal ion in a level no more than a predetermined amount to provide a turbidity no higher than about 9 NTU [nephelometric turbidity units].

Cold flow improver (Maehling F., et al., Basf Aktiengesellschaft, US8338344, December 25, 2012).

The invention relates to the use of polymers which comprise, in copolymerized form, an α-olefin, at least one alkenyl ester and at least one ester of an α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid with higher alcohols as an additive for fuel oils and lubricants and especially as a cold flow improver in fuel oils; to the fuel oils and lubricants additized with these polymers; and to additive packages comprising such copolymers. The invention also relates to quaternary and higher copolymers which comprise the abovementioned monomers in copolymerized form.

Bio-based oxygenated esters and diesters and method of preparation thereof (Narayan R., et al., Board of Trustees of Michigan State University; Bioplastic Polymers and Composites, LLC, US8349032, January 8, 2013).

Fuel oxygenates comprised of fatty acid or fatty acid ester derivatives which have been reacted with ozone; a base; and a lower alkanol (1 to 8 carbon atoms) are described. The oxygenates comprise ester groups at a point of cleavage by the ozone which provide oxygen in the oxygenate.

Aerosol foam composition (Cajan, C., and J. Klutzny, KPSS-KAO Professional Salon Services GmbH, US8349296, January 8, 2013).

The present invention relates to aerosol foam composition for styling and conditioning keratin fibers especially human hair. The composition improves hair styling with excellent hold and especially conditions hair with excellent shine, comb-ability, volume and body and also excellent elasticity. The inventors of the present invention have found out surprisingly that an aqueous composition based on at least one hair styling polymer selected from anionic, nonionic, cationic and/or amphoteric or zwitterionic ones which additionally comprises at least one oil or oily compound, at least one fatty acid soap, at least one emulsifier, and at least one propellant shows excellent styling and conditioning benefits and has an appearance like a whipped cream which has not been known in the cosmetic market prior to the present invention.

Polishing liquid (Kamimura, T., Fujifilm Corp., US8338303, December 25, 2012).

A polishing liquid for a chemical mechanical polishing of a semiconductor device includes (i) a carboxylic acid compound having one or more carboxy groups, (ii) colloidal silica particles having a ζ potential of −10 mV to −35 mV when used in the polishing liquid, (iii) a benzotriazole derivative, (iv) an anionic surfactant, and (v) an oxidizing agent, and the polishing liquid has a pH of from 5.0 to 8.0.

Decantation improvement in a method of producing alkyl esters from vegetable or animal oil and an aliphatic monoalcohol (Koudil, A., et al., IFP Energies nouvelles, US8350071, January 8, 2013).

The present invention describes a method of producing fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerin implementing, in a reaction section, a set of transesterification reactions between a vegetable or animal oil and an aliphatic monoalcohol, and using a heterogeneous solid catalyst, comprising: (i) a stage of recontacting the effluent coming from the reaction section, and separated from the excess alcohol, with a glycerin phase, (ii) a stage of mixing said effluent with said glycerin phase, and (iii) a glycerin phase decantation stage. The supernatant ester phase obtained after decantation is then optionally sent to a coalescer, also allowing separation of the glycerin, then to a purification stage by adsorption on solids.

Modifying agent for plastic fat (Sakai, M., and M. Murayama, Kaneka Corp., US8354133, January 15, 2013).

Provided are a modifying agent for a plastic fat to be used in a plastic fat comprising palm oil, which inhibits changes in physical properties of the plastic fat such as hardness or crude crystal formation and gives an air-containing plastic fat; and a plastic fat using the same. A plastic fat is prepared by using, as modifying agent, an appropriate amount of a fat composition which comprised triglycerides comprising, as constituting fatty acids, a saturated fatty acid (A) having a melting point of 60°C or higher and a saturated fatty acid (B) having a melting point of 40°C or lower, wherein the fat composition contains 40–85 wt%, relative to the total fat composition, of ABB type triglycerides, and the weight ratio (ABB/AAB) of said ABB type triglycerides to AAB type triglycerides is 2–15.

Biodiesel synthesis (Davies, O.M., and R.D. Jackson, Renewable Holdings Ltd., US8350069, January 8, 2013).

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for reacting a natural oil with a short-chain alcohol in the presence of alkaline catalyst, in which a mixture of natural oil, short-chain alcohol, and alkaline catalyst is fed in one direction along a pipe reactor under transitional or turbulent conditions, so that the reactants are mixed in a direction normal to the flow direction to a greater degree than in a direction parallel to the flow direction or so that the reactants are mixed in a direction normal to the flow direction, such that the time taken for 90% of the elements of fluid to pass through the reactor is within 20% of the mean residence time of reactant in the reactor. There is also provided a ship, comprising means for storing a raw material used in the synthesis of biodiesel, a plant for the synthesis of biodiesel, and means for storing the biodiesel synthesized.

Lubricant composition (Teshima, K., and H. Kamano, Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., US8349775, January 8, 2013).

A lubricating oil composition used in an internal combustion engine is provided. The internal combusting engine uses a fuel that contains at least one fat and oil selected from a group consisting of natural fat and oil, hydrotreated natural fat and oil, transesterified natural fat, and oil and hydrotreated transesterified natural fat and oil. The lubricating oil composition includes: base oil of lubricating oil; a component (A) containing a boron derivative of an alkyl- or alkenyl-substituted succinimide compound having a number average molecular weight of 200 to 5,000; and a component (B) containing an alkaline earth metal-based detergent. The component (A) is contained by 0.01 to 0.2 mass% in terms of boron of a total amount of the composition while the component (B) is contained by 0.35 mass% or less in terms of the alkaline earth metal of the total amount of the composition.

Transesterified polyol having selectable and increased functionality and urethane material products formed using the polyol (Kurth, T.M., et al., Tandem Polymers, Inc., US8333905, December 18, 2012).

The present invention includes a polyol produced according to the process comprising reacting a multifunctional alcohol with a first multifunctional component to form a reaction product and reacting the reaction product with a vegetable oil to form a polyol. The present invention also relates to the material comprising the reaction product of an A-side and a B-side, wherein the A-side comprises an isocyanate and the B-side comprises the product formed by the process comprising the steps of reacting a multifunctional alcohol with a first multifunctional component to form a precursor polyol and then reacting the precursor polyol with a vegetable oil to form a vegetable-based polyol with selectable functionality.

Process for using polyoxythylene sorbitan fatty acid ester (Wakita, K., et al., NOF Corp., US8334397, December 18, 2012).

A process for producing a polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester in which the bitterness just after the production and the bitterness with the lapse of time is suppressed. The process of the invention includes reacting an ester (component A) of a fatty acid having 10 to 22 carbon atoms and a monohydric alcohol having 1 to 3 carbon atoms with at least either (component B) of sorbitol and sorbitan to form a sorbitan fatty acid ester and adding ethylene oxide to the sorbitan fatty acid ester, thereby producing a polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester, which is characterized that the following steps (i) to (iv) are contained: (i) the component B is provided in the form of a 50 to 90% by weight aqueous solution and mixed with the component A and dehydration was performed until a water content in the system reaches 1.0% by weight or less based on the total weight of the components A and B; (ii) 1 to 10% by weight of a monohydric alcohol having 1 to 3 carbon atoms and 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of an alkali catalyst based on the total weight of the components A and B are added at 50–90°C; (iii) a transesterification reaction is performed under a nitrogen stream at a reaction temperature of 140–190°C to thereby obtain a sorbitan fatty acid ester; (iv) ethylene oxide is added thereto at a reaction temperature of 70–130°C.

Nut skin products (Chevaux, K.A., et al., Mars, Inc., US8337917, December 25, 2012).

The invention relates to products, including foods such as confectionary and pet foods, comprising nut skins. Exemplary nut skins are peanut and almond skins. The products may also contain cocoa polyphenol and/or L-arginine, and are useful for inducing vasodilation.

Lubricant composition (Kamano, H., Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., US8338342, December 25, 2012).

A lubricating oil composition according to the present invention is used in an internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine uses a fuel that contains at least one fat and oil selected from a group consisting of natural fat and oil, hydrotreated natural fat and oil, transesterified natural fat and oil and hydrotreated transesterified natural fat and oil. The lubricating oil composition contains a component (A) that is an alkaline earth metal-based detergent. The component (A) is contained by a content of more than 0.35 mass% and 2 mass% or less of the total amount of the composition in terms of alkaline earth metal.

Process for producing storage-stable seed crystals of cocoa butter and/or of chocolate masses (Fichtl, P., et al., Uelzena eG, US8349383, January 8, 2013).

The invention relates to a process for the production of seed crystals for chocolate products, which process comprises the following steps: Melting cocoa butter or chocolate masses, mixing the melted mass with a supercritical fluid, expanding the obtained solution in an expansion apparatus so that the formation of powder particles takes place, and separation of the powder particles from the gas. The seed crystals obtained in this manner have a high component of βV crystals and therefore offer advantages over mechanically produced seed crystals in the production of chocolate. The process can be carried out with high space-time yields and therefore offers economical advantages over traditional processes. Furthermore, the use of the produced seed crystals for producing chocolate products with advantageous organoleptic qualities is subject matter of the invention.

Method for increasing the content of docosahexaenoic acid in fat-containing materials or in fats and oils (Hayashi, M., et al., University of Miyazaki, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., US8349595, January 8, 2013).

A process for producing highly unsaturated fatty acids comprising culturing a stramenopile capable of producing highly unsaturated fatty acids in a culture medium containing an inhibitor for fatty acid desaturases; fats-and-oils in which the content of highly unsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid produced by the relevant method, is increased. A method for enhancing the productivity of highly unsaturated fatty acids in stramenopiles, comprising culturing a stramenopile in a culture medium containing an inhibitor for fatty acid desaturases; stramenopiles having the enhanced productivity of highly unsaturated fatty acids, generated by the relevant method. Particularly, the process for producing highly unsaturated fatty acids, the method for enhancing the productivity of highly unsaturated fatty acids, and the stramenopile having the enhanced productivity of highly unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the stramenopile is a microorganism classified into Labyrinthulea.

Products containing highly unsaturated fatty acids for use by women during stages of preconception, pregnancy and lactation/post-partum (Van Elswyk, M., DSM IP Assets B.V., US8349895, January 8, 2013).

A method and product for improving maternal and child health through nutrition. Omega-6 fatty acid and/or omega-3 fatty acid are provided to a woman and/or child prior to, during and/or after pregnancy to improve the health of the woman and her child. The ratios of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids vary during various stages, e.g., pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and post-pregnancy. The omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be in a variety of forms, such as at least one of highly purified algal oil comprising 70% by weight or more of the desired highly unsaturated fatty acids, triglyceride oil combined with phospholipid, phospholipid, protein and phospholipid combination, or dried marine microalgae.

Agent for skin external use containing salt of ascorbic acid derivative, method for stabilizing the agent for skin external use, and stabilizer (Kato, E., et al., Showa Denko K.K., US8278350, October 2, 2012).

An agent for skin external use of the invention contains a salt of higher fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid-2-phosphoric acid ester and a polyhydric alcohol. According to the present invention, occurrence of turbidity or precipitation with time can be prevented to enhance stability even when the agent for skin external use is prepared using a specific salt of higher fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid-2-phosphoric acid ester. Therefore, the present invention is useful for all agents for skin external use, particularly cosmetics.

Natural marine source phospholipids comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids and their applications (Sampalis, F., Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, Inc., US8278351, October 2, 2012).

A phospholipid extract from a marine or aquatic biomass possesses therapeutic properties. The phospholipid extract comprises a variety of phospholipids, fatty acid, metals, and a novel flavonoid.

Method for increasing ruminant fertility (Strohmaier, G.K., et al., Virtus Nutrition LLC, US8278354, October 2, 2012).

Methods for reducing the likelihood of embryonic death in a female ruminant by feeding the ruminant for at least 30 days after conception an effective amount of free-flowing fatty acid calcium salt product comprising from about 1 to 10% by weight of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and from about 1 to about 10% by weight of docosahexaenoic [sic] acid (DHA).

Process for the manufacture of diesel range hydrocarbons (Myllyoja, J., et al., Neste Oil Oyj, US8278492, October 2, 2012).

The invention relates to a process for the manufacture of diesel range hydrocarbons wherein a feed comprising fresh feed is hydrotreated in a hydrotreating step and isomerized in an isomerization step and the fresh feed contains at least 20% by weight triglyceride C12–C16 fatty acids or C12–C16 fatty acid esters or C12–C16 fatty acids or combinations of thereof and feed contains 50–20,000 w-ppm sulfur calculated as elemental sulfur.

Electrolytic solution for electrolytic capacitor and electrolytic capacitor using the same (Takaoka, R., Panasonic Corp., US8279581, October 2, 2012).

An electrolytic solution for an electrolytic capacitor includes a solvent and an electrolyte dissolved in the solvent. This electrolyte includes at least one of a carboxylic acid and a salt of the carboxylic acid. The carboxylic acid has a carboxyl group and at least one or more of substituents bonded to each terminal carbon of a straight main chain. The substituent bonded to the each terminal carbon of the main chain is hydrophilic, and/or a hydrophilic substituent is bonded to at least one of carbons other than the both terminal carbons of the main chain.

Wiping product having enhanced oil absorbency (Smith, M.C.H., et al., Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc., US8282776, October 9, 2012).

Wiping products are disclosed containing an additive composition that enhances the cleaning properties of the product. The additive composition, for instance, comprises an aqueous dispersion containing an α-olefin polymer, an ethylene-carboxylic acid copolymer, or mixtures thereof. The α-olefin polymer may comprise an interpolymer of ethylene and octene, while the ethylene-carboxylic acid copolymer may comprise ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer. The additive composition may also contain a dispersing agent, such as a fatty acid. The additive composition increases various properties of the product including the ability of the product to quickly absorb oil. For instance, the additive composition can decrease the Oil Absorbency Rate by from about 20% to about 80% and can decrease the Reverse Osmosis Oil Wet Out time by from about 10% to about 80%.

Microemulsions and their use for improving the biological efficacy of pesticides (Bohus, P., et al., Lamberti S.p.A., US8282950, October 9, 2012).

Homogenous and stable adjuvants in the form of microemulsions for use in agriculture containing: (a) a mixture of surfactants comprising (i) one or more anionic derivatives of an alkylpolyglycoside; (ii) one or more alkylpolyglycosides; (iii) one or more anionic derivatives of a fatty alcohol; (b) one or more methyl esters of fatty acids deriving from the transesterification of vegetable oils, one or more vegetable oils, or mixture thereof; (c) one or more nonionic surfactants; (d) water.

Method of preparing a microcapsule containing unsaturated fatty acids, the microcapsule prepared by the method, and articles containing the microcapsule (Sin, H.-S., et al., Chebigen Inc., US8282961, October 9, 2012).

The present invention provides a preparing method of microcapsule containing unsaturated fatty acid comprising the steps of (i) preparing a first coating material by mixing and gelatinating one or more gums selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, guar gum, and locusbean gum, with poly glycerin esters of fatty acid in sterilized water, adding unsaturated fatty acid to the solution, and homogenizing the solution; (ii) preparing a second coating material by mixing and gelatinating starch or modified starch, gelatin or casein, and poly glycerin esters of fatty acid in sterilized water, adding the first coating material prepared in (i) to the solution, and homogenizing the solution; and (iii) spraying the second coating material prepared in (ii) in cold sterilized water; a microcapsule prepared by the method; and articles containing the microcapsule. The present microcapsule has effects of preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid and inhibiting offensive smell.

Methods and systems for biomass conversion to carboxylic acids and alcohols (Holtzapple, M.T., and R. Davison, Texas A&M University System, US8283141, October 9, 2012).

The disclosure includes a method, process, and apparatus for the conversion of biomass to carboxylic acids and/or primary alcohols. The system may include a pretreatment/fermentation subsystem operable to produce a fermentation broth containing carboxylic acid salts from biomass, such as lignocellulosic biomass. The system may also include a dewatering subsystem operable to remove excess water from the fermentation broth to produce a concentrated product. The system may also include an acid springing subsystem operable to produce a mixed carboxylic acid product. The system may also include a hydrogenation subsystem operable to produce an alcohol mixture, such as a mixture containing primary alcohols. Methods of operating this system or other systems to obtain a carboxylic acid or alcohol mixture are also provided.

Asphalt mix workable at ambient temperatures with only biodegradable solvents and method of manufacturing the same (Luccarelli, C.J., et al., Green Product Solutions Inc., US8287635, October 16, 2012).

An asphalt mix comprising a pine extract, the asphalt mix having low viscosity at ambient temperatures, and workable at ambient temperatures. The asphalt mix comprises asphalt cement, biodiesel, pine extract and an anti-stripping agent. The asphalt mix is an environmentally safe and "green" product. It comprises recycled asphalt product [RAP]. The asphalt mix eliminates petroleum solvents beyond trace amounts used to denature biodiesel. The asphalt mix is used for patching at ambient temperatures. Safety precautions for heat and toxicity are not necessary for use. The asphalt mix comprises only solvents that are biodegradable. The biodegradable solvents are pine extract and biodiesel. A method of manufacturing an asphalt mix comprising: heating aggregate; introducing RAP to the aggregate; dry mixing the RAP and aggregate; forming a coating of AC on all aggregate during the step of dry mixing by extending the length in time of the dry mixing step; separately blending AC [asphalt cement], biodegradable solvents, and anti-stripping agent to produce a blend; and wet mixing the blend into the RAP and aggregate mix. The biodegradable solvents are capable of making the asphalt mix workable at ambient temperatures. The biodegradable solvents comprise pine extract and biodiesel. The length of the dry mixing is extended to at least about 35 seconds. The aggregate comprises coarse virgin aggregate and fine virgin aggregate. The RAP is about 40% of the final product. The asphalt mix is stockpiled. The asphalt mix is bagged. The method of manufacturing further comprises manipulating encrusted material on the outside of the stockpiled cold asphalt mix back into the stockpile.

Methods and compositions for improving air entrainment in cementitious mixtures (White, C.M., et al., Cognis IP Management GmbH, US8287639, October 16, 2012).

A method for improving air entrainment comprising the steps of: providing a compound selected from an amphoteric, an alkyl polyglycoside, an ester, a triglyceride, a triglyceride derivative, a fatty alcohol, an alkoxylated fatty alcohol, an alkoxylated polyhydric fatty alcohol, and mixtures thereof; dispersing the compound on a finely particulate carrier to form a treated carrier; and adding the treated carrier to a cementitious mixture is provided. A composition for improving air entrainment, including a compound selected from an amphoteric, an alkyl polyglycoside, an ester, a triglyceride, a triglyceride derivative, a fatty alcohol, an alkoxylated fatty alcohol, an alkoxylated polyhydric fatty alcohol, and mixtures thereof, wherein the compound is dispersed on an organic particulate carrier and added to a cementitious mixture, is also provided. The composition may be incorporated into a concrete structure.

Modified inorganic particles for deinking (Rosencrance, S., et al., Kemira Chemicals, Inc., US8287690, October 16, 2012).

The present invention provides methods for deinking printed waster paper—particularly methods that use a deinking composition that includes a hydrophobically-modified inorganic particle (MIP) to improve ink collection efficiency under traditional alkaline, reduced alkali, and true neutral deinking conditions. Deinking compositions are provided that include a hydrophobically-MIP substrate, a nonionic surfactant, and a fatty acid, or mixtures thereof. The improved ink collection of the present invention can result in deinked pulp of high quality and/or yields that has excellent brightness and effective residual ink concentrations (ERIC) values.

Bitterness-masking particulate jelly beverage (Fukui, A., Ryukakusan Co., Ltd., US8287897, October 16, 2012).

A particulate jelly beverage which facilitates the intake of a bitter drug and/or supplement. The beverage comprises 0.1 to 15.0% bitterness-masking ingredient comprising a vegetable fat or animal fat, 5 to 20% bitterness-masking aid comprising a sugar alcohol, 0.1 to 5.0 % gellant such as an agar or carrageenan, and water as the remainder. It may optionally contain an ingredient for reducing water repellency, such as a sucrose/fatty acid ester, glycerol/fatty acid ester, or propylene glycol, in an amount of 0.01 to 1.5%.

Dry analytical element for lipase measurement (Nakamura, K., and S. Kageyama, Fujifilm Corp., US8288117, October 16, 2012).

It is an object of the present invention to provide: a dry analytical element for analyzing pancreatic lipase wherein the triglyceride is not transcribed on the support to contaminate a transportation slip or other analytical elements and wherein an additive solution of the triglyceride neither reaggregates nor precipitates, so that the dry analytical element is stable and is compatible with production. The present invention provides a dry analytical element for measuring pancreatic lipase contained in body fluid, which comprises triglyceride of long-chain alkyl fatty acid having 12 to 22 carbon atoms, monoglyceride lipase, and a glycerin measurement reagent, and which comprises a water-impermeable support and at least one spreading or reagent layer, wherein a hydrophilic polymer at a weight ratio of 1.8:1 or greater with respect to the triglyceride is contained.

Process for making a detergent composition comprising a hydrophilic silica and a copolymer containing a carboxylic acid monomer and a sulfonic acid monomer (Somerville Roberts, N.P., Procter & Gamble Co., US8288333, October 16, 2012).

A process for making a detergent composition, the detergent composition comprising: (a) from about 0.1% to about 50% by weight of the composition of a polymer in particulate form comprising: (i) a carboxylic acid monomer; (ii) more than about 5% by weight of the polymer of a sulfonic acid monomer; and (iii) optionally a non-ionic monomer; and (b) from about 0.01% to about 10% by weight of the composition of a hydrophilic silica; the process comprising the steps of: (a) pre-mixing the polymer with the hydrophilic silica to obtain a polymer/silica premix; and (b) mixing polymer/silica premix with any additional detergent components.

Isolated peptides having phospholipase inhibitory activity (de Naria, L., et al., Novozymes A/S, US8288510, October 16, 2012).

The invention provides for isolated peptides having phospholipase inhibitory activity, polypeptides comprising phospholipase inhibitory activity and lipases capable of being inhibited by the isolated peptides and/or polypeptides comprising phospholipase inhibitory activity. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, recombinant expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the peptides and the polypeptides having lipase inhibitory activity.

Process for preparing a bio-diesel (Wang, H., et al., China Petroleum & Chemical Corp., Research Institute of Petroleum Processing; US8288573, October 16, 2012).

The present invention provides a process for preparing a bio-diesel, comprising, in the presence of an alkaline metal compound, reacting an oil-fat with C1–C6 monohydric alcohol in a reactor at a reaction temperature of from 130 to 280°C and a reaction pressure of from 1 to 12 MPa, separating fatty acid esters from the reacted materials, so as to produce the bio-diesel, wherein said alkaline metal compound is present in an amount of 0.001–0.07 wt%, in terms of the metal thereof, relative to the weight of the oil-fat. The process provided in the present invention has the advantages of great throughput and high yield of the bio-diesel.

Process for preparing carboxylic acid derivatives (Boehmke, U., et al., Evonik Rohmax Additives GmbH, US8288583, October 16, 2012).

The present invention relates to processes for preparing carboxylic acid derivatives, comprising the reaction of at least one carboxylic acid and/or of a carboxylic acid derivative with at least one alcohol and/or an amine in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst, wherein, after the reaction has ended, the metal-containing catalyst is contacted with water and a superabsorbent, the contacting of the catalyst with the water leading to hydrolysis of the catalyst. The present invention further relates to the use of superabsorbents for removing a metal-containing catalyst from a mixture after hydrolysis of the catalyst.

Plasticiser alcohol and production improvement (Van Driessche, E., et al., ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc., US8288595, October 16, 2012).

Embodiments of the invention disclosed herein relate to a process for the production of a C6–C15 alcohol mixture comprising the steps of: hydroformylating an olefin mixture comprising a branched C5–C14 olefin to form a hydroformylation product comprising aldehydes and formate esters, whereby the hydroformylation product has a net cold sap number [saponification number?] from 15 to 38 mg KOH/g, and converting the aldehydes and formate esters to alcohols in a hydrogenation step comprising at least one first hydrogenation reactor comprising a fixed bed of a heterogeneous sulfided bimetallic catalyst.

Monitoring and manipulating cellular transmembrane potentials using nanostructures (Ignatius, M., et al., Life Technologies Corp., US8290714, October 16, 2012).

The use of nanostructures to monitor or modulate changes in cellular membrane potentials is disclosed. Nanoparticles having phospholipid coatings were found to display improved responses relative to nanoparticles having other coatings that do not promote localization or attraction to membranes.

Tire with component containing polybenzobisoxazole short fiber and epoxidized palm oil (Mruk, R., et al., Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., US8261796, September 11, 2012).

The present invention is directed to a pneumatic tire comprising at least one component, the at least one component comprising a rubber composition, the rubber composition comprising a diene-based elastomer and from 1 to 30 parts by weight, per 100 parts by weight of elastomer, of a polybenzobisoxazole (PBO) short fiber having a length ranging from 0.5 to 20 mm and a thickness ranging from 10 to 30 microns, and from 1 to 30 parts by weight, per 100 parts by weight of elastomer, of an epoxidized palm oil.

Indulgent edible composition (Bellody, Jr., W.J., et al., Mars, Inc., US8263168, September 11, 2012).

The present invention is directed to an indulgent edible composition that provides an orally pleasurable eating experience similar to chocolate as the chocolate melts in the oral cavity comprising (i) a starch that when combined with water in a weight ratio of 5:95 starch to water, has a viscosity at 22°C of about 0.03 Pa·s to about 2 Pa·s at a shear rate of 10 sec-1; (ii) a protein-containing component that will substantially hydrate in water and will not coagulate; (iii) a sweetener that when substantially hydrated is at least 90% free of crystals in said edible composition; (iv) a fat-containing component that melts at a temperature of about 45°C or less; (v) a hydrocolloid gelling agent that facilitates the formation of a gel matrix that will break down at a temperature of about 45°C or less; and (vi) an edible surfactant that is food grade and has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance value of about 0 to about 12, wherein the edible composition has a total moisture content from about 10% to about 50% moisture by weight of the composition.

Process for the partial hydrogenation of fatty acid esters (Papadogianakis, G., et al., Cognis IP Management GmbH, US8263794, September 11, 2012).

Disclosed is a process for the manufacture of unsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters or glycerides having a total content of C18:1 of about 30 to about 80 mol%, by partial hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid esters having a total content of (C18:2 + C18:3) of at least 65 mol%, calculated on the total amount of C18 moieties in the ester, wherein the hydrogenation is conducted in an aqueous/organic two-phase system in the presence of a water-soluble catalyst consisting of a Group VIII, Group IX, or Group X metal and a hydrophilic ligand.

Method and compositions to reduce serum levels of triacylglycerides in human beings using a fungal lipase (Schuler, C., et al., Bio-Cat, Inc., US8268305, September 18, 2012).

The invention relates to methods and compositions for reducing serum levels of triacylglycerides in human subjects. In particular, the invention relates to the oral administration of an effective amount of a fungal lipase formulation, to a human subject having borderline-high or high serum levels of triacylglycerides, for a time period sufficient to reduce serum triacylglyceride levels.

Method for extracting cocoa procyanidins (Hammerstone, J.F., and M.J. Chimel, Mars, Inc., US8268373, September 18, 2012).

A cocoa extract which is rich in procyanidin monomer and oligomers is made by extracting de-fatted, unroasted, unfermented cocoa beans with organic solvents. The yield of procyanidins in an extract varies with the type of solvent used, reaction temperature, reaction pH, and whether or not the solvent is an aqueous solution. Extraction parameters can be optimized to increase procyanidin yield, and different conditions result in the preferential extraction of the higher or lower oligomers. A preferred extraction method is countercurrent extraction method.

Integrated methods for processing palm fruit bunches (Eyal, A., and C. Raz, Eyal Researach Consultants Ltd., US8268595, September 18, 2012).

This invention is directed to an integrated method for the processing of palm fruit bunches to oil and other products. The method comprises inter alia separating palm fruit carrying bunches into fruits and lignocellulosic empty fruit bunches, processing the fruits to form palm oil, and at least one lignocellulosic processing co-product; generating an aqueous stream; producing a non-oil, non-alcohol, non-fatty acid ester third product from the oil, the lignocellulosic processing co-product, the aqueous stream or from a combination thereof; processing at least a portion of the lignocellulosic empty fruit bunches, lignocellulosic processing co-product or a combination thereof into a fourth product and optionally producing at least one fifth conversion product from the fourth product; and using at least a portion of the fourth product or a product of its conversion or a combination thereof.

Nucleic acids useful in the manufacture of oil (Franklin, S., et al., Solazyme, Inc., US8268610, September 18, 2012).

Novel gene sequences from microalgae are disclosed, as well as novel gene sequences useful in the manufacture of triglyceride oils. Also disclosed are sequences and vectors that allow microalgae to be cultivated on sugarcane and sugar beets as a feedstock. In some embodiments, the vectors are useful for the purpose of performing targeted modifications to the nuclear genome of heterotrophic microalgae.

Fast symptom glyphosate formulations (Wright, D.R., et al., Monsanto Technology LLC, US8268749, September 18, 2012).

Aqueous herbicidal glyphosate compositions are provided, particularly sprayable, ready-to-use (RTU) formulations that are capable of inducing early visually apparent phytotoxic effects while minimizing antagonism to the glyphosate component of the composition and preserving the equally desirable attribute of prolonged control of the treated plants. The compositions combine a glyphosate component and a fatty acid component as a fast symptomology active ingredient and, in one embodiment, are enhanced by the concentration of the fatty acid component utilized and the inclusion of an agronomically acceptable inorganic ammonium salt, preferably ammonium sulfate. In another embodiment, the compositions of the present invention include a nonionic surfactant component comprising certain water-soluble alkoxylated alcohols.

Laundry article having cleaning and conditioning properties (Meine, G., et al., Henkel AG & Co., KGaA, US8268771, September 18, 2012).

The present invention is a laundry article used for both cleaning and conditioning fabrics, which comprises a water-insoluble nonwoven substrate, coated with at least one zone each of a detergent composition and a fabric-conditioning composition. The fabric-conditioning composition comprises a quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant, an alkoxylated fatty alcohol, and a fatty acid.

Phospholipid copolymers (Stopek, J., Tyco Healthcare Group IP, US8268958, September 18, 2012).

The present disclosure provides copolymers including a first monomer including at least one phospholipid possessing at least one hydroxyl group and a second monomer including a cyclic monomer. Compositions, medical devices, and coatings including such copolymers are also provided.

Method and apparatus for refining biodiesel (Pelly, M.F., US8269028, September 18, 2012).

Method and apparatus for producing biodiesel fuel, i.e., alkyl ester, from vegetable and/or animal oil. A transesterification catalyst is prepared in a base catalyst tank by spraying alkyl alcohol under pressure through jets at metal hydroxide pellets until the pellets have fully reacted with the alcohol. The oil is heated and transesterified in the presence of alkyl alcohol and the transesterification catalyst in a closed, recirculating transesterification flow system under slight cavitation to yield product alkyl ester and product glycerol. Cavitation is achieved by permitting air to enter the transesterification flow system through an adjustable air inlet valve. When permitted to stand, product alkyl ester forms an upper layer that is decanted and subjected to purification steps, to remove particulates and alkyl alcohol from the product alkyl ester, and a lower layer of product glycerol is drained away. Purification of the product alkyl ester preferably includes subjecting the product alkyl ester to an overhead water mist in a wash tank with simultaneous infusion of a stream of air bubbles. Alcohol vapor is reclaimed as liquid alcohol within an alcohol condenser and stored for reuse. If the oil contains free fatty acids, prior to transesterification, the oil is heated and the free fatty acids are esterified in the presence of an esterification catalyst and alkyl alcohol. For safety, baffles and explosion damper/flame arresters are provided in locations where flammable vapors pose a risk.

Lunaria annua, Cardamine graeca and Teesdalia nudicaulis FAE genes and their use in producing nervonic and eicosenoic acids in seed oils (Katavic, V., et al., National Research Council of Canada, US8269062, September 18, 2012).

This invention relates to nucleic acid sequences coding for a Lunaria annua, Cardamine graeca, or Teesdalia nudicaulis fatty acid elongase [FAE], yeast cells expressing the genes/enzymes, plants themselves and cells of such plants and seeds which contain a heterologous gene coding for a L. annua, C. graeca, or T. nudicaulis FAE gene, the plant or seed being capable of producing increased proportion of a very long chain monounsaturated fatty acid, especially nervonic acid and eicosenoic acid, beyond that of a control plant or seed lacking the heterologous FAE gene or genes.

Synthetic compositions obtained from algae (Brown, J.A., et al., US8273694, September 25, 2012).

The application provides a base stock or a lubricant composition comprising the substances derived from algae by chemical modification of algal oil, including compositions comprising estomers. Methods for obtaining the same are also provided, including chemically modifying the algal oil with a saturated fatty acid under conditions favorable to the formation of a poly-estomer.

Fire extinguishing and/or fire retarding compositions (Beck, M., et al., BASF Aktiengesellschaft, US8273813, September 25, 2012).

The invention concerns fire-extinguishing and/or fire-retarding compositions comprising at least one water-absorbing polymer and at least one alkali metal salt of a nonpolymeric saturated carboxylic acid, processes for their production and the use of the compositions for firefighting or as fire-retarding coatings.

Method of converting a polyol to an olefin (Bergman, R.G., et al., Regents of the University of California, US8273926, September 25, 2012).

A method of preparing an olefin comprising: reacting a polyol in the presence of a carboxylic acid, such that an olefin is produced by the deoxygenation of the polyol. The reacting step can comprise (i) providing a composition comprising the polyol, (ii) heating the composition, and (iii) introducing the carboxylic acid to the composition wherein the introducing step occurs prior to, at the same time as, or subsequent to the heating step. In one embodiment, the polyol is glycerol, the carboxylic acid is formic acid, and the olefin is allyl alcohol, which is produced at a yield of about 80% or greater.

Δ-15 desaturase genes suitable for increasing levels of omega-3 fatty acids (Damude, H.G., and N.S. Yadav, E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co., US8273957, September 25, 2012).

The present invention relates to fungal Δ-15 fatty acid desaturases that are able to catalyze the conversion of linoleic acid (18:2, LA) to α-linolenic acid (18:3, ALA). Nucleic acid sequences encoding the desaturases, nucleic acid sequences which hybridize thereto, DNA constructs comprising the desaturase genes, and recombinant host plants and microorganisms expressing increased levels of the desaturases are described. Methods of increasing production of specific omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids by over-expression of the Δ-15 fatty acid desaturases are also described herein.

Biaxially oriented hydrolysis-stable polyester film comprising epoxidized fatty acid derivatives, and process for production thereof and use thereof (Kliesch, H., et al., Mitsubishi Polyester Film GmbH, US8277710, October 2, 2012).

The invention relates to biaxially oriented polyester films which contain 0.1–5.0% by weight (based on the weight of the film) of a hydrolysis stabilizer based on epoxidized fatty acid esters and 0.2–10% by weight (based on the weight of the film) of epoxidized fatty acid glycerides, the epoxidized fatty acid esters having a mean molecular weight of at least 425 g/mol. Such films find use in outdoor applications, as a ribbon cable, as a backside laminate of solar modules, and in electrical insulation applications.

Insect attractants and their use in methods of insect control (Hamilton, J.G.C., Keele University, US8277825, October 2, 2012).

The present invention utilizes a fatty acid as an attractant in a method of attracting whiteflies. By using a fatty acid as a whitefly attractant, it is possible to attract whiteflies to a desired location. The fatty acid can be used in a lure or other propagator to provide a dispersion of fatty acid in the air, the variation in the concentration of the fatty acid in the air being such that a whitefly is attracted to the lure as the source of the fatty acid. The use of a fatty acid as an attractant results in significantly higher levels of attraction, as measured by the number of whiteflies attracted to a sticky trap, as compared to the use of color alone.

Lipidated glycosaminoglycan particles and their use in drug and gene delivery for diagnosis and therapy (Margalit, R., and D. Peer, Tel Aviv University Future Technology Development L.P., US8277847, October 2, 2012).

Lipidated glycosaminoglycan particles, prepared by reacting a glycosaminoglycan with at least one lipid to cross-link the carboxylic acid groups in the glycosaminoglycan with a primary amine in the lipid, are used to encapsulate drugs for use in the treatment of pathological conditions in an animal.

Method of making soaps from oil-bearing microbial biomass and oils (Day, A.G., et al., Solazyme, Inc., US8278261, October 2, 2012).

Soap and cosmetic products can be made from oil-bearing microbial biomass via the alkaline hydrolysis of glycerolipids and fatty acid esters to fatty acid salts. The saponified microbial oils/lipids can be combined with a variety of additives to produce compositions for use as soaps and other cosmetic products, which may also contain other constituents of the biomass, including unsaponified oils, glycerol, and carotenoids, among others.

Apparatus and method for properly pre-measuring turkey frying oil  (Jantz, E.L., US8256130, September 4, 2012).

A way to safely fry turkeys by minimizing the hazard of overfilling oil, the Turkey Frying Oil Gauge (TFOG) comprises a device and method to properly pre-measure the frying oil used to fry whole turkeys. The Turkey Frying Oil Gauge is dual scale selectable for pot diameter and turkey weight. The turkey frying pot rim is measured and the size is selected on the gauge bottom. The mast is then slid out to view the weight of the turkey to be fried. The gauge is then placed in the bottom of the pot and frying oil is placed in the pot to the top of the gauge. The oil gauge is removed, the oil heated and the turkey introduced without overflowing the oil onto the heating flames.

Multi-layer-core golf ball having highly-neutralized polymer outer core layer (Rajagopalan, M., and M.J. Sullivan, Acushnet Co., US8257201, September 4, 2012).

A golf ball including an inner core layer formed from a thermoset rubber composition and having a first surface hardness; a thermoplastic outer core layer having a second surface hardness, an inner surface hardness, and being formed from a copolymer of ethylene and an α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid, an organic acid or salt thereof, and sufficient cation source to fully neutralize the acid groups of the copolymer; an inner cover layer; and an outer cover layer; wherein the first surface hardness is less than the second surface hardness by at least 5 Shore C and less than the inner surface hardness by at least 5 Shore C.

Microemulsion paint thinner (Hawes, C.L., et al., W.M. Barr & Co., US8257484, September 4, 2012).

A microemulsion paint thinner includes a hydrocarbon solvent, a glycol ether, a carboxylic acid, a base, and water, wherein the carboxylic acid is partially neutralized by the base. A process for thinning oil-based paint includes mixing uncured oil-based paint and the above composition.

Etchant for etching metal wiring layers and method for forming thin film transistor by using the same (Chae, G.S., et al., LG Display Co. Ltd., US 8257609, September 4, 2012).

The present invention discloses an etchant for etching at least two different metal layers, the etchant comprising hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and one of carboxylic acid, carboxylate salt, and acetyl group (CH3CO–). The present invention also discloses a method of fabricating a metal wiring on a substrate, the method comprising forming a first metal layer on a substrate, forming a second metal layer on the first metal layer, and simultaneously etching the first metal layer and the second metal layer with an etchant comprising hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and one of carboxylic acid, carboxylate salt, and acetyl group (CH3CO–).

Electrical cable for high voltage direct current transmission, and insulating composition (Perego, G., and E. Albizzati, Prysmian Cavi e Sistemi Energia S.R.L., US8257782, September 4, 2012).

Cable for high-voltage direct current transmission having at least one conductor and at least one extruded insulating layer consisting of a polymeric composition of a polyethylene and at least one unsaturated fatty acid. Insulating composition having a polyethylene and at least one unsaturated fatty acid.

Composition for vulcanized rubber and vulcanization product (Otaka, T., et al., Daiso Co., Ltd., US8258222, September 4, 2012).

A composition for epihalohydrin vulcanized rubber excellent in heat resistance while keeping good vulcanization rate and store stability, comprising (a) an epihalohydrin robber, (b) a metal soap, (c) an acid acceptor, and (d) a vulcanizing agent, the composition further preferably containing (e) a fatty acid for suppressing vulcanization, or preferably containing (f) an alcohol for accelerating vulcanization.

Rubber composition for tire, and tire (Minagawa, Y., Sumitomo Rubber Industries, Ltd., US8258224, September 4, 2012).

The present invention provides a rubber composition for a tire containing an epoxidized natural rubber, sulfur, and a fatty acid metal salt, in which the metal of the fatty acid metal salt is a metal belonging to Group 12, 13, or 14 of the periodic table. Here, the fatty acid metal salt is preferably at least one kind selected from the group consisting of zinc stearate, aluminum stearate, and tin stearate. Also, the present invention provides a tire manufactured by using the foregoing rubber composition for a tire.