Selected Patents 2007

The Editor: Scott Bloomer

The following list contains brief details of current patents, which appeared to the editor to be especially relevant. Inevitably, there is an element of subjectivity in the choice. Topics included in the list are based on the Divisions of the AOCS and the topical sessions held at the AOCS annual meetings. Patents are listed here at intervals as they were published in Inform.

Use of fiber film reactors to effect separation and reaction between two immiscible reaction components (Massingill, J., Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, USA, July 20, 2006, US20060157411).

This is a fiber reaction process whereby reactive components contained in immiscible streams are brought into contact to effect chemical reactions and separations. The conduit reactor used contains wettable fibers onto which one stream is substantially constrained and a second stream is flowed over to continuously create a new interface there between to efficiently bring about contact of the reactive species and thus promote reactions thereof or extractions thereby. Co-solvents and phase transfer catalysts may be employed to facilitate the process.

Method for continuous catalytic hydrogenation (Grass, M., and others, Degussa AG and Oxeno Olefinchemie GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany, July 20, 2006, US20060161017A1).

The invention relates to the preparation of alicyclic carboxylic acids or their derivatives by selective hydrogenation of the corresponding aromatic carboxylic acid (derivatives) in at least two series-connected reactors, at least one reactor being operated in loop operating mode. The catalyst volumes in the method are set in such a manner that the catalyst volume required, based on the conversion rate, is as low as possible.

Functionalized vegetable oil derivatives, latex compositions and coatings (Thames, S., and others, c/o Howrey LLP, Falls Church, Virginia, USA, September 21, 2006, US20060211795A1).

An ethylenically unsaturated vegetable oil is modified by the addition of an enophile or dienophile having an acid, ester, or anhydride functionality. The modified vegetable oil is then reacted with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative along with a functional vinyl monomer or a PEG derivative that contains a vinyl functionality to form a vegetable oil derivative. The vegetable oil derivative is useful in forming latexes and coatings.

Processes for making functional soy protein isolate compositions (Mozaffer, Z., Solae, LLC, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, October 12, 2006, US20060228462A1).

Processes for producing soy protein isolate compositions having improved functionality are disclosed. Specifically, the processes comprise modifying a precipitated soy protein curd with a modifying agent selected from the group consisting of transglutaminase, sodium hypochlorite, a sucrose ester, a fatty acid, a lecithin, and combinations thereof. The soy protein isolate compositions are suitable for use in meat and meat products.

Use of functionalized mesoporous silicates to esterify fatty acids and transesterify oils (Lin, V., and Radu, D., Iowa State University Research Foundation, Ames, Iowa, USA, October 17, 2006, US7122688B2).

The present invention provides a method to prepare a fatty acid lower alkyl esters from a feedstock, such as a vegetable or an animal oil, comprising one or more fatty acid glycerol esters such as mono-, di- or triglycerides, and free fatty acids, comprising combining the feedstock, a lower alcohol and an acidic mesoporous silicate under conditions wherein the mesoporous silicate catalyzes the formation of the corresponding fatty acid lower alkyl ester of the free fatty acids and optionally glycerol.

Method of assaying wash performance of enzymes on a microtiter plate (Collier, K., and others, Genencor International Inc., Palo Alto, California, USA, October 17, 2006, US7122334B2).

A microtiter method for assaying the wash performance of new enzymes and/or new detergent formulations is described.

Metathesis of unsaturated fatty acid esters or unsaturated fatty acids with lower olefins (Burdett, K., and others, Dow Global Technologies Inc., Midland, Michigan, USA, October 10, 2006, US7119216B2).

An olefin metathesis process involving contacting an unsaturated fatty acid ester or unsaturated fatty acid, such as methyloleate or oleic acid, with a lower olefin, preferably ethylene, in the presence of a metathesis catalyst so as to prepare a first product olefin, preferably, a reduced chain α-olefin, such as methyl-9-decenoate or 9-decenoic acid, respectively. The metathesis catalyst contains ruthenium or osmium and a chelating ligand, preferably, a chelating ligand containing a carbene moiety and a second donor moiety of a Group 15 or 16 element. Optionally, the catalyst can be supported on a catalyst support, such as a cross-linked polymeric resin.

Polyol fatty acid polyesters process and polyurethanes therefrom (Dwan’Isa, J-P.L., L.T. Drzal, and others, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA, October 24, 2006, US7125950B2).

A solvent-free process for making a polyol fatty acid polyester composition useful for preparation of polyurethanes is described. These compositions are preferably made by reaction of a natural oil (from plant or animal) with a multifunctional hydroxyl compound derived from a natural source, such as sorbitol, in the presence of an alkali metal salt or base such as potassium hydroxide as a catalyst, which also acts to saponify the reaction mixture. The hydroxyl content of the prepared composition depends on the amount of the multifunctional hydroxyl compound used in the preparation. In another embodiment, the hydroxyl groups of these compositions are reacted with an isocyanate, such as the polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (also known as 4,4′-diphenyl methane diisocyanate, or MDI) to form polyurethanes in a conventional manner.

Methods for the preparation of polyol esters that are light in color (Poppe, G., Archer Daniels Midland Co., Decatur, Illinois, USA, October 24, 2006, US7126018B2).

The present invention is directed to a process of producing polyol esters possessing desirable composition and color. Preferably, such a process does not require molecular distillations or decoloration steps to yield a light-colored polyol ester composition. Materials that are dark in color are often produced during the esterification of polyols with vegetable oil fatty acids. It has been discovered that the present process yields the desired ester products that are light in color. The present process comprises an esterification of a polyol, such as propylene glycol, and a fatty acid ester, such as a vegetable oil fatty acid methyl ester, in the presence of a catalyst and borohydride, wherein a polyol ester having a Lovibond color below about 0.6 Red and below about 1.5 Yellow is produced.

Purification of glycerin (Aiken, J.E., Sunoco Inc. (R&M), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, October 24, 2006, US7126032B1).

A process for purifying glycerin recovered as a by-product of biodiesel production comprises heating a glycerin effluent stream containing a low molecular weight alcohol, water, and fatty acid esters of the low molecular weight alcohol to cause transesterification of the fatty acid esters to glycerides and additional low molecular weight alcohol. The reaction mixture is sparged with nitrogen to help remove water and low molecular weight alcohol, which drives the transesterification reaction toward glyceride formation. A wash water stream may also be added to the recovered glycerin stream from biodiesel production. Either before or following the transesterification reaction, an oil layer can be separated from the recovered glycerin stream by reducing the pH of the stream to below 7. Following separation of the oil layer and transesterification, the glycerin stream is flash distilled to separate glycerin from water, salts, and glycerides.

Compressed wood product and manufacture (McIntosh, T., Auckland, New Zealand, November 7, 2006, US7131471B2).

The invention described is a method for compressing wood products in a manner which achieves fixation of compression deformation. The method includes two compression stages. In between those stages the wood is coated and impregnated with a fatty acid. The wood, after the second compression step is annealed to set the compressor. The product may be used for flooring, panelling, and for making wooden articles.

Modified soy products and methods for reducing odor and improving flavor of soy products (Boatright, W., Univ. Kentucky Res. Found., Lexington, Kentucky, USA, December 12, 2006, US7147878B2).

A method for reducing odor in soy products and compositions containing soy products by adding or admixing a compound having one or more disulfide bonds to the soy product or composition. The disulfide compound includes a peptide containing at least cystine residue, a peptide or polypeptide containing at least one disulfide bond, L-cystine, D-cystine, DL-cystine, and any combination thereof.

Process for producing fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol of high-purity (Bournay, L. and Baudot, A., Inst. Français du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison, France, November 21, 2006, US7138536B2).

In a process for producing fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol comprising at least one reaction stage in which a charge comprising a vegetable and/or animal oil and an alcohol are brought into contact, in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst, so as to obtain an effluent comprising at least alkyl esters, glycerol, and alcohol, and at least one separation stage during which a separation is carried out of at least one portion of the effluent so as to separate an alcohol-rich effluent and an alkyl esters-rich effluent, at least one separation stage consists of a membrane separation using at least one alcohol-permeable membrane.

Oil/fat powder (Sakuma, T., and others, Kao Corp., Tokyo, Japan, November 28, 2006, US7141265B2).

Provided is an oil/fat powder comprising the following Components (A), (B) and (C): (A) 15 to 79.9 wt% of a glyceride mixture containing 5 to 84.9 wt% of triglycerides, 0.1 to 5 wt% of monoglycerides, and 15 to 94.9 wt% of diglycerides, and having, as at least 50 wt% of all the constitutive fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids; (B) 20 to 84.9 wt% of one or at least two powder forming bases selected from carbohydrates, proteins, and peptides; (C) 0.1 to 5 wt% of water. The diglyceride-containing oil/fat powder according to the present invention exhibits good taste and excellent dispersibility in water and storage stability. Moreover, owing to good handling use and workability when it is added to food, it can be used readily for various forms of foods. Foods containing this oil/fat powder taste good and have good storage stability.

Process for the purification of a crude carboxylic acid slurry (Sumner, C.E., Jr., and others, Eastman Chem. Co., Kingsport, Tennessee, USA, November 7, 2006, US7132566B2).

Disclosed is a process to produce a purified carboxylic acid product. The process comprises removing impurities from a crude carboxylic acid slurry in a solid–liquid displacement zone to form a slurry product. The slurry product is further treated in a staged oxidation zone and a crystallization zone to form a crystallized product. The crystallized product is further cooled in a cooling zone and subsequently filtered and dried in a filtration and drying zone. The process produces purified carboxylic acid product having good color and low impurity levels without the use of purification steps like hydrogenation.

Non-wood fiber plastic composites (Williams, J.B., and others, Lonza AG, Fair Lawn, New Jersey, USA, December 19, 2006, US7151125B2).

This invention is directed to an extrudable compound, an extrusion method using a polymer, a cellulosic fiber, and at least one lubricant selected from the group consisting of ethoxylated esters of hydantoins, ethoxylated esters of sorbitol and sorbitan, and ethylene bisamides made from fatty acids containing 6–10 carbons and composites manufactured through such processes which simulate conventional wood products. Another embodiment of the invention is directed to a composition containing polymer, a cellulosic fiber from an agricultural waste product, and a lubricant containing a mixture of an alkylene bisamide derived from a C10–C18 fatty acid and an alkaline earth salt of a fatty acid.

Process for preparing hypoallergenic and reduced fat foods (Girsh, L., Immunopath Profile Inc., Naples, Florida, USA, December 12, 2006, US7147882B2).

Common allergenic foods are made hypoallergenic by treatment with supercritical fluid or critical liquid gas such as supercritical carbon dioxide or liquid nitrogen. The treatment of foods with liquid nitrogen or supercritical carbon dioxide also enhances the functionality of fat, so that the total fat in the food can be reduced while retaining the good taste of the food. Compositions and methods for the oral delivery of a medicament or vitamin are also provided. (Note: Dr. Girsh, an AOCS member, published his first scientific paper in 1951).

Modified olefin copolymer (Mori, T., and Oi, N., Sumitomo Chemical Co., Osaka, Japan, January 9, 2007, US7160950B2).

A modified olefin-based copolymer produced by graft-polymerizing an alkenyl aromatic hydrocarbon and/or an unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative thereof to an olefin-based copolymer containing repeating units derived from a linear α-olefin and/or ethylene copolymer of ethylene and repeating units derived from a vinyl compound (I) or (II) described below, and an adhesive containing the product as an effective ingredient, in which an adhesiveness to an adherend such as olefin resins (e.g., polyethylene, polypropylene) is further improved, are provided. Vinyl compound (I): a vinyl compound represented by the general formula CH2=CH–R, wherein steric parameters Es and B1 of the substituent R are, respectively, –1.64 or less and 1.53 or more. Vinyl compound (II): a vinyl compound represented by the general formula CH2=CH–R′, wherein a substituent R′ is a secondary or tertiary alkyl group.

System and method for extracting energy from agricultural waste (Branson, J., Best Biofuels LLC Co. Smithfield Foods, Inc., Smithfield, Virginia, USA, January 30, 2007, US7169821B2).

The present invention relates to a process and apparatus for processing agricultural waste to make alcohol and/or biodiesel. The agricultural wastes are subjected to anaerobic digestion, which produces a biogas stream containing methane, which is subsequently reformed to a syngas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The syngas is converted to an alcohol, which may be stored, sold, used, or fed directly to a reactor for production of biodiesel. The solids effluent from the anaerobic digester can be further utilized as slow-release, organic-certified fertilizer. Additionally, the wastewater from the process is acceptable for immediate reuse in agricultural operations.

Fatty ester mixture for solar protection and cosmetic product containing same (Lege, C., and Loubat, N., Stearinerie Dubois FILS, LeBlanc, France, March 6, 2007, US7186403B2).

The invention concerns a fatty ester mixture for cosmetic product, comprising at least two fatty esters selected among a branched C4–C8 monocarboxylic acid and a branched C8–C12 alcohol, the esters of a C8–C12 dicarboxylic acid and the esters of a linear C8–C12 dicarboxylic acid and a branched C3–C6 alcohol and the esters of a hydroxycarboxylic acid and a linear C10–C18 alcohol. The invention is useful in cosmetics and more particularly for solar protection products.

Phosphorus-containing carboxylic acid derivatives process for preparations thereof and flame retardant (Fujimura, T., and others, NOF Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, March 6, 2007, US7186784B2).

A phosphorus-containing carboxylic acid derivative which has a group containing phosphorus atom and has in its molecule, a group represented by the following formula (1):


wherein R1, R2 and R3 are each a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbon group having 1 to 18 carbon atoms, and Y is an oxygen atom or sulfur atom; a process for producing the derivative; and a flame retardant comprising the foregoing derivative as an effective ingredient. The present invention can provide the phosphorus-containing carboxylic acid derivative and a flame retardant, which are each excellent in solubility in an organic solvent, compatibility with a variety of resins, stability, and flame retardancy.

Enzymatic modification of lecithin (Schmitt, H. and Heirman, M., Cargill, Inc., Wayzata, Minnesota, USA, March 13, 2007, US7189544).

The disclosure pertains to enzymatic modification of lecithin and to hydrolyzed lecithin products obtained by such modification. One particular implementation provides methods for producing a hydrolyzed lecithin product containing hydrolyzed phospholipids, monoglycerides, and diglycerides. For example, such a method may include the steps of: (a) contacting a lecithin material, which includes a phospholipid component and a triglyceride component, in an aqueous or organic solvent medium, with a first enzyme effective to hydrolyze the phospholipid and (b) subsequently contacting the product of step (a) with a second enzyme, effective to hydrolyze the triglyceride under reaction conditions effective to inhibit esterification of the hydrolyzed phospholipid with released fatty acids.

Cell surface layer-binding protein and utilization thereof (Fukuda, H., and others, Kansai Chemical Engineering Co., Hyogo, Japan, March 20, 2007, US7192764).

A plasmid is constructed so as to express a fused protein of a sugar chain-binding protein domain with a desired protein. Then this plasmid is transferred into cells and thus the protein is expressed in the cell surface layer. This method is particularly adequate in case of expressing a protein having an activity in the C-terminal portion in cell surface layer. A suitable protein includes a lipase, thus an immobilized lipase preparation can be prepared.

Method of producing a fatty acid ester (Tatsumi, N., and others, Kao Corp., Tokyo, Japan, March 20, 2007, US7193097).

Present invention relates to a method of producing a fatty acid ester, including reacting fat and oil with an alcohol in the presence of at least one third component, wherein the third component is in a supercritical state or subcritical state under the condition of preventing a uniform phase from forming.

Gasoline additive concentrate composition and fuel composition and method thereof (Jackson, M., and Corkwell, K., The Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, Ohio, USA, March 27, 2007, US7195654).

Gasoline additive concentrate composition comprises a solvent, an alkoxylated fatty amine, and a partial ester having at least one free hydroxyl group and formed by reacting at least one fatty carboxylic acid and at least one polyhydric alcohol. A fuel composition comprises gasoline and the gasoline additive concentrate composition. A method of operating a gasoline internal combustion engine comprises fueling the engine with the fuel composition and is effective in reducing fuel consumption.

Peptide/lipid complex formation by co-lyophilization (Dasseux, J.-L., Mannheim, Germany, March 13, 2007, US7189411).

The invention relates to the formation of peptide/lipid vesicles and complexes through the co-lyophilization of peptides, preferably that are able to adopt an amphipathic alphahelical conformation, and one or more lipids. A single solution that solubilizes both the peptides and lipids or two separate solutions may be lyophilized.

Heterofunctional copolymers of glycerol and polyethylene glycol, their conjugates and compositions (Ignatious, F., SmithKline Beecham Corp., Philadephia, Pennsylvania, USA, March 27, 2007, US7196145).

Present invention relates to heterofunctional copolymers of glycerol and polyethylene glycol, conjugates of these heterofunctional copolymers with bioactive agents, nanoparticles, hydrophobic polymers and/or lipids and to compositions containing these conjugates.

Method for combustion of pulverized coal with reduced emissions (Appleby, D., and Spooner-Wyman, J., Procter & Gamble Co. (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA), March 27, 2007, US7195656).

Fuel compositions containing (i) pulverized coal and (ii) an oxygenate selected from glycerol, glycerol derivatives, propylene glycol, propylene glycol derivatives, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol derivatives, fatty acid alkyl esters, fatty alcohols, and mixtures thereof. Methods of reducing the NOx emissions generated from the burning of pulverized coal in a heat-producing unit, wherein the method comprises the steps of: (i) introducing pulverized coal into a combustion chamber of the heat-producing unit and (ii) co-firing the pulverized coal with an oxygenate source selected from glycerol, glycerol derivatives, propylene glycol, propylene glycol derivatives, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol derivatives, fatty acid alkyl esters, fatty alcohols, and mixtures thereof, where the combustion of the oxygenate source generates at least 2.5%, on a heat input basis, of the total heat generated by the co-firing.

Concentrated suspensions (Parris, M., and Robinson, G., Schlumberger Technology Corp. (Sugar Land, Texas, USA), April 3, 2007, US7199084).

Suspensions are provided of water-soluble materials in non-aqueous carrier fluids based on biodiesel using suspension agents that include thixotropic agents and, optionally, organophilic clays. Methods of forming such suspensions are provided. Methods are also provided for using such suspensions to prepare aqueous solutions, in particular thickened aqueous solutions, in particular for use in oilfield treatments.

Mortierella alpina diacylglycerol acyltransferase for alteration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and oil content in oleaginous organisms (Xue, Z., and others, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Wilmington, Deleware, USA), April 3, 2007 US7198937).

An acyltransferase is provided, suitable for use in the manufacture of microbial oils enriched in omega fatty acids in oleaginous organisms. Specifically, the gene encoding diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT2) has been isolated from Mortierella alpina. This gene encodes an enzyme that participates in the terminal step in oil biosynthesis in fungi and yeast and is expected to play a key role in altering the quantity of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) produced in oils of oleaginous organisms. Most desirably, the substrate specificity of the instant DGAT2 will be particularly useful to enable accumulation of long-chain PUFA having chain lengths equal to or greater than C20 in oleaginous yeast, such as Yarrowia lipolytica.

Methods for extending the freshness of cut flowers, ornamental trees, and plant cuttings (Chapman, K., and Austin-Brown, S., University of North Texas (Denton, Texas, USA), April 3, 2007, US7199082).

Disclosed are compositions that comprise one or more N-acylethanolamine compounds for maintaining the freshness and appearance of cut flowers, floral products, decorative foliage, fruits, and other plant cuttings. More specifically, the present invention provides methods for treating and storing cut flowers, Christmas trees, fruits, and other severed plant parts that preserve the appearance, freshness, fragrance, and/or aesthetic qualities of the botanical products. By using the disclosed compositions, the shelf life of cut flowers was substantially prolonged, in many cases 2 to 5 times longer than untreated flowers, with the treated flowers or foliage appearing healthy and viable, and without wilting, dehydration, leaf drop, or visible signs of senescence. Likewise, treatment of ornamental coniferous plants with the antisenescent compositions delayed deterioration and leaf drop, while extending the overall appearance and quality of the plants and plant cuttings.

Energy source using hydrogenated vegetable oil diluted into diesel fuel (Stewart, W., and others, Bunge North America, Inc. (St. Louis, Missouri, USA), April 10, 2007, US7201837).

An alternative fuel source, preferably for use in a boiler, is provided. The fuel source comprises a partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and diesel fuel. Preferably, the partially hydrogenated vegetable oil has an iodine value (IV) ranging between approximately 50 and approximately 120.

Ethanol–diesel fuel composition and methods thereof (Corkwell, K., and others, The Lubrizol Corp. (Wickliffe, Ohio, USA), April 24, 2007, US7208022).

A fuel composition for use in an internal combustion engine containing (i) a diesel fuel, (ii) ethanol, (iii) a surfactant, and optionally (iv) a combustion improver, which provides lubricity to the engine and reduces exhaust emissions.

Lamellar liquid crystals in viscous oil product (Eger, S., and others, Dr. Eger-Olive Oil Products Industry Ltd. (Yokneam, Moshava, Israel), April 10, 2007, US7201933).

Disclosed is a viscous oil product made by combining an oil or oil-containing product with a crystallizing agent, moderately heating the mixture and allowing the mixture to cool, forming lamellar liquid crystals. A crystal stabilizing agent is also disclosed. A uniquely healthy and palatable manner of providing essential fatty acids for consumption is disclosed.

Dispersible cocoa products (Nijhuis, T., and others, Cargill, Inc. (Wayzata, Minnesota, USA), April 10, 2007, US7201934).

An improved method for increasing the dispersibility of cocoa powder that has been treated with liquid solvent extraction procedures to reduce fat content. A dispersing agent such as lecithin is added to wet cocoa mass comprising remaining cocoa butter and remaining solvent from the liquid extraction. The residual solvent improves the uniformity of mixing between the cocoa mass and the dispersing agent.

Rubber compositions with nonpetroleum oils (Wilson, T., Nike, Inc. (Beaverton, Oregon, USA), May 1, 2007, US7211611).

Nonpetroleum-based oils replace traditional process oils used in rubber compositions in general and specifically in footwear applications. The replacement oils, derived from plant or animal sources, represent a renewable resource and provide other advantages. The oils contain a sufficient level and distribution of fatty acid side chains to partially incorporate into the rubber at low levels, and to act as internal plasticizers at higher levels. Other compositions are free of silane coupling agents and additives that generate carcinogenic nitrosamines.

Method for improving the activity of enzymes (Van Beek, E., and others, Kemin Industries, Inc. (Des Moines, Iowa, USA), May 1, 2007, US7211281).

A method for improving the performance of enzymes used in animal feeds by the use of surfactants. Lecithin and/or lysolecithin is added to an animal feed including an exogenous enzyme to boost the performance of the enzyme so that a desired level of performance can be maintained while reducing the amount of exogenous enzyme that must be included in the animal feed. Preferably, the surfactant includes lyso-forms of lecithin.

Fatty acid esters based on branched fatty acids and their use as printing ink solvents (Hoefer, R., and others, Cognis Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG (Düsseldorf, Germany), May 8, 2007, US7214261).

Fatty acid esters of which the fatty acid constituents are fatty acids containing a total of 12 to 22 carbon atoms and of which the alcohol constituents are saturated and/or mono- or polyolefinically unsaturated monoalcohols containing a total of 1 to 22 carbon atoms, with the additional proviso that the fatty acid constituents of the esters contain saturated and/or mono- or polyolefinically unsaturated fatty acids and have a branched structure, isostearic acid being excluded as the fatty acid constituent of the esters, are suitable as solvents for printing inks.

Flavor-enhancing oils (Zyzak, D., and Swaine, R., Jr., Smucker Fruit Processing Co. (Salinas, California, USA), May 8, 2007, US7214400).

Disclosed are flavor-enhancing oils comprising at least one edible liquid oil and at least one water-soluble flavor enhancer. The water-soluble flavor enhancer is uniformly dispersed throughout the edible liquid oil. Delivery of water-soluble flavor enhancers via a stable fat or oil base allows higher temperatures to be obtained during cooking, leading to the formation of enhanced flavors.

Dulce de leche-flavored fat-based confection, method for making the same and confectionery candies making use of the same (Woelfel, K., and others, Mars Inc. (McLean, Virginia, USA), June 12, 2007, US7229657).

A dulce-flavored fat-based confection possessing a smooth and creamy mouthfeel and a thermally generated flavor and suitable for use in candy-shelling is provided. A method of making such a dulce-flavored fat-based confection is also disclosed.

Early diagnosis of stroke (Kleinfeld, A., Inventor (La Jolla, California, USA), April 10, 2007, US7202089).

A method is described for the early detection of stroke that uses a reagent that includes a fluorescently modified fatty acid binding protein. A fluorescence difference is noted between the bound and unbound condition. Elevated levels of unbound free fatty acids from blood are used as indicators of stroke.

Test strip for determining concentration of triglycerides (Anaokar, S., and others, Polymer Technology Systems, Inc. (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA), May 8. 2007, US7214504).

A dry-phase triglycerides test strip that can be stored at room or elevated temperatures for several months without significant degradation in its effectiveness. The test strip includes a test membrane which receives plasma and forms a colored response in proportion to concentration of triglycerides in the plasma. The test membrane is impregnated with an aqueous solution containing lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and 4-aminoantipyrine (4AAP). The inventors have found that by reducing the pH of the impregnating solution to less than that of the recommended pH range for one of the key components (viz., less than pH 6.0), overall stability of the test strips is dramatically improved.

Sphingomyelin-detecting probe (Kobayashi, T., and others, Riken (Saitama, Japan), May 15, 2007, US7217793).

Proteins useful as sphingomyelin-detecting probes, which specifically recognize sphingomyelin and have low cytotoxicity. The proteins of the present invention may be obtained by deletion of between about 110 to 170 amino acid residues from the N terminal or C terminal of earthworm toxin Lysenin 1. Kits for detecting sphingomyelin are also disclosed.

Carbohydrate esters for using as lubricants (Kunz, M., and others, Südzucker Aktiengesellschaft (Mannheim/Ochsenfurt, Germany) and Fuchs Petrolub AG (Germany), May 22, 2007, US7220710).

The present invention relates to compositions which comprise mixtures of open-chain and cyclic molecules of the sugar alcohols D-sorbitol and D-mannitol which have been esterified with at least one carboxylic acid, processes for preparing these compositions, and the use of this composition as lubricant or hydraulic liquid.

Method of producing copolymer latex using for aqueous paint (Nishioka, T., and others, Nippon A&L Inc. (Osaka, Japan), May 22, 2007, US7220797).

A copolymer latex for chipping-resistant aqueous paint capable of remarkably improving balance of chipping-resistance, strength of adherence with metal, water-resistance and high resistance for cycles of cool and heat is provided.

This is achieved by a method for producing a copolymer latex using for chipping-resistant aqueous paint, the method comprising emulsion-polymerizing 20 to 80 parts by weight of a conjugated diene as a monomer, 0.5 to 15 parts by weight of an ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid as a monomer, 5 to 40 parts by weight of an aromatic vinyl compound as a monomer, 5 to 40 parts by weight of an unsaturated alkyl carboxylate as a monomer, and optionally not more than 69.5 parts by weight of other compound having vinyl group copolymerizable therewith as a monomer based on 100 parts by weight in the total of the monomers, wherein 100 wt% of the amount of conjugated diene, 100 wt% of the amount of ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid, 95 to 50 wt% of the amount of aromatic vinyl compound and 95 to 50 wt% of the amount of the unsaturated alkyl carboxylate are added in the former stage of the emulsion-polymerization, and 5 to 50 wt% of the amount of the aromatic vinyl compund and 5 to 50 wt% of the amount of the unsaturated alkyl carboxylate are added at the later stage of emulsion-polymerization.

Esterification of xanthophylls (Cordona, M., DSM IP Assets B.V. (Geleen, The Netherlands), May 22, 2007, US7220874).

Lutein and zeaxanthin, the main carotenoids in marigold flowers, and capsanthin and capsorubin, the main carotenoids in red peppers, were esterified mainly with C-18 fatty acids. The pigments were re-esterified without isolating them from the natural saponified extract using carboxylic acids in the range of C-1 to C-12 and their corresponding metallic salts in the presence of a catalyzing agent. Both the diester and monoester forms were obtained. It is expected that the pigment esters with a fatty acid of 12 or fewer carbons will have a better digestibility than the esters of xanthophylls in their natural state and better stability than the hydrolyzed xanthophylls. This will result in a better pigmentation capacity of the carotenoids for poultry or aquaculture.

Blended baby foods (Cary, J., and others, Gerber Products Co. (Fremont, Michigan, USA), May 29, 2007, US7223434).

Processed baby foods are disclosed that are formulated with oils and/or nucleotides. Oils are added to yield an acceptable ratio of the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). A blend of 3–6 nucleotides may be added to yield a level of 3–6 mg/100 Kcal, which are associated with a number of biological processes, the most common being the potential to optimize the health of the immune and gastrointestinal systems of breast-fed infants and some infants and young children fed commercial infant formula with added nucleotides.

Phospholipases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them (Gramatikova, S., and others, Diversa Corp. (San Diego, California, USA), June 5, 2007, US7226771).

The invention provides novel polypeptides having phospholipase activity, including, e.g., phospholipase A, B, C, and D activity, patatin activity, lipid acyl hydrolase (LAH) activity, nucleic acids encoding them and antibodies that bind to them. Industrial methods, e.g., oil degumming, and products comprising use of these phospholipases are also provided.

Lipolytic enzyme variant (Roggen, E., Novozymes A/S (Bagsvaerd, Denmark), June 5, 2007, US7226770).

The properties of a fungal lipolytic enzyme can be altered by substituting amino acid residues corresponding to certain specified amino acid residues in the T. lanuginosus lipase. The altered property may be, e.g., an increased thermostability, an altered pH dependence, or an altered substrate specificity.

Triglyceride fat (Besselink, J., and others, Unilever Bestfoods North America, division of Conopco, Inc. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA), May 29, 2007, US7223435).

Preparation of a fat phase suited for the preparation of food compositions which contain liquid or solid particles stably dispersed in the fat phase, which preparation comprises mixing 0.25–20 wt% of a structuring triglyceride fat A with 0–19.75 wt% of a triglyceride fat C and admixing a vegetable oil up to 100%, which fat A is characterized in that the fat is non-hydrogenated and that its content of fully saturated triglycerides is 20–100 wt%, 80–100 wt% of its saturated fatty acid residues are palmitic acid or stearic acid residues, 0–5 wt% of its saturated fatty acid residues are lauric acid or myristic acid residues, <50 wt% of its saturated triglycerides are monoacyl triglycerides and that fat C having a solid fat content at 20°C (N20) being at least 5 contains less than 20 wt% of H2M fatty acid residues, where H denotes saturated fatty acid residues having chain lengths larger than 15 carbon atoms and where M denotes saturated fatty acid residues having chain lengths of either 12 or 14 carbon atoms.

Process for producing a hydrocarbon component of biological origin (Jakkul, J., and others, Fortum Oyj, Espoo, Finland, June 19, 2007, US7232935B2).

The invention relates to a process for producing a hydrocarbon component of biological origin. The process comprises at least two steps, the first one of which is a hydrodeoxygenation step and the second is an isomerization step operated using the countercurrent flow principle. A biological raw material containing fatty acids and/or fatty acid esters serves as the feedstock.

Method and medium for the detection/identification of microorganisms with esterase activity (Roger-Dalbert, C., Bio Merieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France, June 26, 2007, US7235379B2).

The invention relates to a method and a medium for microbiological analysis by biochemical means involving chromogenic or fluorogenic substrates that react with enzymes (esterases) specific for the target strains. One object of the invention is to improve the sensitivity, initial translucence, stability, and ease of use of such detection/identification media. For this purpose the medium according to the invention is characterized in that it is in a stable, ready-to-use liquid or gel form and in that it contains a solubilizer and stabilizer selected from fatty acid sorbitan esters, bile salts, and mixtures thereof, as well as a selective activator selected from alkylsulfate salts, for example, the sodium salts. The medium can comprise a solvent, for example dimethyl sulfoxide. Application: microbiological analyses.

Organically clean biomass fuel (Murcia, P., Ecoem LLC, Greenwich, Connecticut, USA, July 10, 2007, US7241321B2).

An organically clean biomass fuel formed of a mixture of a powder, which may be either dried, cellulosic product, wood charcoal powder, and/or a combination of the two, and a fluid, which may be vegetable oil, vegetable alcohol, or a combination of the two. A centrifugal machine dries moist, cellulosic product and extracts black liquor. A grinder transforms the dried, cellulosic product into powder. Gum may be extracted from the vegetable oil or vegetable alcohol. A batch mixer or vibrating vessel mixes the powder and the fluid together; the fluid moisturizes the powder. Depending on the relative amount of the fluid as compared with the powder, the mixture will either be in a liquid cream state or a doughy state. If the latter, the mixture may be pressed into briquettes or ingots.

Processes for producing conjugated linoleic acid (Westfechtel, A., and others, Cognis Deutschland GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany, July 10, 2007, US7241910B2).

Processes for producing conjugated linoleic acid are described that comprise: (i) isomerizing a linoleic acid lower alkyl ester in the presence of an alkali metal alcoholate to form a conjugated linoleic acid lower alkyl ester; (ii) saponifying the conjugated linoleic acid lower alkyl ester in the presence of an aqueous lye to form a saponification product; and (iii) neutralizing the saponification product with phosphoric acid.

Genes for plant fatty acid modifying enzymes associated with conjugated double bond formation (Cahoon, E., and others, Dupont, Wilmington, Delaware, July 17, 2007, US7244563B2).

The preparation and use of nucleic acid fragments encoding plant fatty acid-modifying enzymes associated with conjugated double bond formation or functionally equivalent subfragments thereof are disclosed. Chimeric genes incorporating such nucleic acid fragments or functionally equivalent subfragments thereof or complement thereof and suitable regulatory sequences can be used to create transgenic plants having altered lipid profiles.

Energy source using hydrogenated vegetable oil diluted into diesel fuel (Stewart, W., Jr., and others, Bunge North America Inc., St. Louis, Missouri, USA, July 24, 2007, US7247232B2).

An alternative fuel source, preferably for use in a boiler, is provided. The fuel source is comprised of a partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and diesel fuel. Preferably, the partially hydrogenated vegetable oil has an Iodine Value (IV) ranging from approximately 50 to approximately 120.

Low-residue, easy-cleaning and low-viscosity structured lipid pan release compositions and methods (Teran, P., and others, Bunge Oils Inc., Bradley, Illinois, USA, July 24, 2007, US7247334B2).

Medium-chain triglyceride oils are interesterified with long-chain edible oils to form interesterified structured lipids. These structured lipids find special application in food service pan release cooking compositions and methods. The products have a relatively low viscosity of between about 20 and about 52 centipoise while having a smoke point that is especially suitable for cooking applications. They provide enhanced release properties, reduced darkening effects, less residue buildup, and enhanced cleaning of griddling, cooking and baking pans; containers; and utensils.


Patent Applications

High-fat animal feed pellets and method for making same (Bevans, B., and others, Archer Daniels Midland Co., Decatur, Illinois, USA US20060045957A1, March 2, 2006).

A method is provided for producing animal feed pellets that are made entirely or predominantly of fat. Fats, oils, and waxes with complementary physical properties also can be included, as can nutrients. Cohesive pellets of high flowability and durability are achieved. The superior handling quality of the pellets allows for their use in further formulation of animal feeds, where homogeneous distribution of nutrients throughout the final feed mix is desired.

Soya fiber particulates and methods of preparation (Gottemoller, T., Archer Daniels Midland Co., Decatur, Illinois, USA US20060062891A1, March 23, 2006).

The present invention belongs to the field of processing techniques used in the manufacture of soy foods. The invention relates to methods for preparing a soya fiber particulate from dehulled soybeans of a superior smooth texture, nutritional quality, and flavor. The invention can be used to obtain a soya fiber particulate having a particle size in a range of about 0.01 microns to about 100 microns, wherein at least about 50% to about 100% of the soya fiber particulate has a size in a range of about 0.01 microns to about 35 microns. The invention furthermore is concerned with the use in the manufacture of food products which include but are not limited to beverages, dry mixes, yogurts, sour cream, and cream cheese.

Oil-based cosmetic preparation (Gotou, N., and others, The Nisshin OilliO Group, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan US20060062752A1, March 23, 2006).

An oil-based cosmetic preparation contains (i) an oil gelling agent, (ii) an oil-based ingredient, and (iii) one or more members selected from the group consisting of ester compounds of formula (I) and/or formula (II) that are reaction products of erythritol and/or erythritol condensate with a fatty acid(s); polycondensates of erythritol and/or erythritol condensate, the above-mentioned ester compound(s), and a polycarboxylic acid(s); polycondensates of a fatty acid(s) with a polycondensate(s) of erythritol and/or erythritol condensate with a polycarboxylic acid(s); and polycondensates of erythritol and/or erythritol condensate, a fatty acid(s), and a polycarboxylic acid(s). The oil-based cosmetic preparation has excellent usability, provides a makeup coverage with satisfactory luster and moisturizing feel, and exhibits excellent shape retention properties.

Process for esterifying fatty acids (Laakso, S., and others, Raisio Oyj, Raisio, Finland WO2006035107A1, April 6, 2006).

The invention relates to a process for esterifying fatty acids added to edible preparations. The process and the product in accordance with the invention are characterized by a fatty acid being added to or produced in a mixture allowing the culture of eukaryotic microorganisms, the obtained microorganism mass as such or its components being used as an edible preparation.

Process for co-producing olefins and esters by ethenolysis of unsaturated fats in nonaqueous ionic liquids (Lacombe, S., and others, c/o Millen, White, Zelano & Branigan, P.C., Arlington, Virginia, USA US20060079704A1, April 13, 2006).

A process is described in which an unsaturated fat is reacted with ethylene in a metathesis reaction in the presence of at least one nonaqueous ionic liquid to produce both an olefinic fraction and a composition of monoalcohol or polyol esters. Particular application to an oleic sunflower seed oil, an oleic rapeseed oil, or to a mixture of monoalcohol esters of said oils, the process producing both an olefinic fraction and a monoalcohol or glycerol esters composition generally having more than half of its chains constituted by unsaturated C10 chains.

A method of extracting and isolating minor components from vegetable oil (Choo, Y., and others, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Selangor, Malaysia EP1424013B1, April 19, 2006).

A process for the separation and recovery of minor components from vegetable oil such as palm oil is described. Esterified palm oil is subjected to molecular distillation, giving a concentrate rich in minor components. The concentrate is then adsorbed to adsorbents such as normal-phase silica gel, reversed-phase (particularly C18) silica gel or neutral alumina, as well as polymer absorbents such as polyethylene glycol and polyacrylate polyalcohol. Minor components such as squalene, carotenes, tocols, and sterols are then selectively desorbed, separated, and recovered using solvents operating at isocratic conditions. The desorption of the said minor components is sped up by applying pressure of between 0.2 and 50 bar. By the same method, individual tocols isomers from palm oil can also be separated and recovered.

Satiety emulsions and food compositions (Bialek, J., and others, Conopco Inc., D/B/A Unilever, Englewoods Cliffs, New Jersey, USA, US20060105093A1, May 18, 2006).

The present invention provides edible aqueous oil-in-water emulsions comprising 15–70% wt oil having a saturated fatty acid content of at least 20% wt and at least 10% wt of said oil being solid at 37°C, 0.1–5% wt emulsifier, which is a protein and 25–84.9% wt water. The oil preferably comprises palm oil and the emulsifier preferably comprises partially denatured egg white. The emulsions provide good satiety benefits and do not adversely affect the taste of products into which they are incorporated. Furthermore the emulsions are very stable, which has benefits also for the food products and beverages into which they are incorporated. Also provided are food and beverage products comprising the emulsion of the invention.

Performance-enhancing additives for lubricating oils (Dalman, D., and Rozniak, M., c/o Price Heneveld Cooper Dewitt & Litton, LLP, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, US20060105920A1, May 18, 2006).

A lubricant exhibiting enhanced properties, including improved load-carrying capacity and wear reduction, includes synthetic and/or mineral oil as a major ingredient, and a performance-enhancing amount of vegetable oil. In addition to providing improved performance characteristics, the vegetable oil additive reduces the need for certain other additives, including pour point depressants and viscosity index improvers, thereby simultaneously lowering the overall cost of the lubricant.

Process for producing carboxylic acids (Bonnet, D., and others, Rhodia, Cranbury, New Jersey, USA, US20060106251A1, May 18, 2006).

The present invention relates to a process for producing carboxylic acids. It relates more particularly to a process for producing carboxylic acids by oxidation of a hydrocarbon with oxygen or a gas containing oxygen, and even more particularly to the oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid. It relates to a process comprising a step consisting of hydrolysis of the esters formed during the oxidation step.

Cooking oil antioxidant composition, method of preparation and use (Friedman, B., and Bielska, B., Oil Process Systems, Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA, US20060110513A1, May 25, 2006).

Frying processes utilizing cooking oil at elevated temperatures can cause various degradation effects in the oil including oxidation, hydrolysis and/or polymerization. In the absence of additives to protect the oil, the nutritional profile and cooking performance of degraded oil diminish the quality of food cooked therein. The disclosed methods and compositions provide beneficial and cost effective improvements in the cooking performance of oil used at elevated temperatures, for example, in food frying equipment.

Seed oil compositions (Makadia, V., and others, Monsanto Technology, LLC, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, US20060111254A1, May 25, 2006).

The present invention is directed to seed oil compositions that can be used for cooking and frying applications. These oil compositions of the present invention have advantageous stability characteristics. In some embodiments, the oil compositions have a low concentration (<3%) of α-linolenic acid.

Transesterification and esterification of fatty acids and triglycerides by dispersion and dispersion method for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (Gapes, R., and Baumgartner, H., c/o Artz & Artz, Southfield, Michigan, USA, US20060111579A1, May 25, 2006).

The invention relates to a method for the basic or acidic catalyzed esterification and transesterification of fatty acids, such as oils and fats, i.e., the esters of glycerin with fatty acids, by dispersion of low alcohols, especially methyl alcohol, in the liquidic initial product. The invention is characterized in that the methyl alcohol (or other low alcohols) is fully dispersed in the reaction mixture. The invention also relates to embodiments of said method.

Fatty acid desaturases from fungi (Ursin, V., and others, Monsanto Technology, LLC, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, US20060156435A1, July 13, 2006).

The invention relates generally to methods and compositions concerning fungal desaturase enzymes that modulate the number and location of double bonds in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. In particular, the invention relates to methods and compositions for improving omega-3 fatty acid profiles in plant products and parts using desaturase enzymes and nucleic acids encoding for such enzymes. In particular embodiments, the desaturase enzymes are fungal-15 desaturases. Also provided are improved canola oil compositions having stearidonic acid (SDA) (18:4, 6c, 9c, 12c, 15c) and maintaining beneficial oleic acid content.

Method for producing fatty acid methyl ester and equipment for realizing the same (Ergen, N., and Panning, P., Energea Umwelttechnologie GmbH, Vienna, Austria, May 16, 2006, US7045100B2).

Method for producing fatty acid methyl ester, including compounding saturated and unsaturated higher fatty substances from at least one of vegetable and animal with an alkaline solution dissolved in alcohol to form a mixture. The method also includes emulsifying the mixture to reach a chemical balance state in a reaction section, wherein fats are transesterified into fatty acid methyl ester, wherein border surfaces of the mixture are enlarged by dynamic turbulence in the reaction section and the transesterification is performed under pressure, and wherein the pressure is reduced during transesterification. The method further includes after reaching a chemical balance state, separating residues from the fatty acid methyl ester in a phase separation section.

Fat blend (Sawatzki, G., and others, N.V. Nutricia, HM Zoetermeer, The Netherlands, May 16, 2006, US7045143B1).

The invention relates to an oil, fat and/or lecithin-based fat blend containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. The inventive fat blend is characterized in that the fatty acids gamma-linolenic, stearidonic, and eicosapentaenoic together make up 10 to 500 mg/g total fatty acids. The gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids each represent 20 to 50 wt% and the stearidonic acid represents 15 to 50 wt% of the sum of these three fatty acids. The inventive fat blend can be incorporated into a dietetic or a pharmaceutical product, especially a dietetic food, and can be used especially for administering to patients suffering from chronic/ inflammatory diseases, disorders of the lipid metabolism, a weakened immune function, and/or a restricted lipolytic capacity of the gastrointestinal tract.

High oleic acid oil compositions and methods of making and electrical insulation fluids and devices comprising the same (Oomman, T., and Claiborne, C., ABB Technology AG, Zurich, Switzerland, May 23, 2006, US7048875B2).

High oleic acid triglyceride compositions that comprise fatty acid components of at least 75% oleic acid, less than 10% diunsaturated fatty acid component; less than 3% triunsaturated fatty acid component; and less than 8% saturated fatty acid component; and having the properties of a dielectric strength of at least 35 kv/100 mil gap, a dissipation factor of less than 0.05% at 25°C, acidity of less than 0.03 mg KOH/g, electrical conductivity of less than 1 pS/m at 25°C, a flash point of at least 250°C and a pour point of at least -15°C are disclosed. Electrical insulation fluids comprising the triglyceride composition are disclosed. Electrical insulation fluids that comprise the triglyceride composition and a combination of additives are disclosed. Electrical apparatuses comprising the electrical insulation fluids and the use of electrical insulation fluids to provide insulation in electrical apparatuses are disclosed. A process for preparing the high oleic acid triglyceride composition is disclosed.

Method for producing technical oleic acid methyl esters (Heck, S., and others, Cognis France S.A., Boussens, France, June 20, 2006, US7064223B2).

A process for making technical oleic acid methyl esters having a stearic acid methyl ester content of less than about 2% by weight, and a palmitic acid methyl ester content of less than about 5%, comprising: (i) providing a C8–18 palm kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester; (ii) fractionally distilling said C8–18 palm kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester to form a C8–14 head product and a C16–18 bottom product; (iii) fractionally distilling the C16–18 bottom product to form a short-chain C16 head product and a long-chain and unsaturated C18 bottom product; (iv) fractionally distilling the long-chain and unsaturated C18 bottom product to form a predominantly unsaturated head product having a high palmitic acid methyl ester content and a predominantly unsaturated bottom product have a minimal palmitic acid methyl ester content; and (v) fractionally distilling the predominantly unsaturated bottom product have a minimal palmitic acid methyl ester content to form a head product rich in oleic acid methyl ester and poor in stearic acid methyl ester and a bottom product rich in both oleic acid methyl ester and stearic acid methyl ester.

Separation of plant oil triglyceride mixtures by solid bed adsorption (Lysenko, Z., and others, Dow Global Technologies Inc., Midland, Michigan, USA, August 29, 2006, US7097770B2).

A solid bed adsorptive process for separating a seed oil into two substantially pure triglyceride fractions. The process involves contacting a seed oil, such as castor oil, preferably as a concentrate, with an adsorbent in a bed, the adsorbent having a particle size greater than about 40 microns, and thereafter contacting the adsorbent with a desorbent material, preferably under minimal flow conditions, to obtain a raffinate output stream containing predominantly a second triglyceride and an extract output stream containing predominantly a first triglyceride. Purified fatty acid triglyceride esters obtainable from castor, vernonia, and lesquerella plant oils provide renewable, nonpetroleum-based sources of chemical feedstocks.

Compositions of material, especially lubricants and pressure transmitting means, the production and use thereof (Hoelderich, W., and others, Fuchs PetrolubAG., Mannheim, Germany, September 5, 2006, US7101831B2).

The invention relates to novel compositions of matter which may advantageously be used as lubricants or pressure transfer media or else for functional liquids and lubricant additives. The lubricants according to the invention are the reaction products of an electrophilic addition of linear or branched, aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids, carboxylic anhydrides, carbonyl halides, or novel neoacids to the double bonds of fatty acids, esters thereof, and/or of other fatty acid derivatives and also of synthetic esters. Owing to their increased oxidation resistance compared with the starting materials and also their low toxicity, the novel class of synthetic esters based on oleochemicals may find use in novel environmentally compatible lubricants, pressure transfer systems, functional liquids, and lubricant additives.

Process for controlling the fatty acid chain composition of triglycerides and use thereof (Spars, F., and Engelrud, U., Danisco A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark, October 3, 2006, US7115760B2).

The present invention relates to a process for controlling the fatty acid chain composition of triglycerides wherein a feed stream comprises a mixture of triglycerides containing at least one long chain. Said mixture is substantially free of trishort chain triglycerides and it is treated in at least two fractionation steps to fractionate between long-chain triglycerides at temperatures above 200°C and pressures between 0.01 and 10 Pa, wherein one of said steps fractionates between trilong chain triglycerides and mono- and dilong chain triglycerides and the other one of said steps fractionates between monolong chain triglycerides and dilong chain triglycerides. The process can be used for the providing of target triglycerides having a controlled fatty acid chain distribution.

Metathesis of unsaturated fatty acid esters or unsaturated fatty acids with lower olefins (Newman, T., and others, Dow Global Technologies Inc., Midland, Michigan, USA, October 10, 2006, US7119216B2).

An olefin metathesis process involving contacting an unsaturated fatty acid ester or unsaturated fatty acid, such as methyl oleate or oleic acid, with a lower olefin, preferably ethylene, in the presence of a metathesis catalyst so as to prepare a first product olefin, preferably, a reduced-chain olefin, such as methyl-9-decenoate or 9-decenoic acid, respectively. The metathesis catalyst contains ruthenium or osmium and a chelating ligand, preferably, a chelating ligand containing a carbene moiety and a second donor moiety of a Group 15 or 16 element. Optionally, the catalyst can be supported on a catalyst support, such as a cross linked polymeric resin.

Process for the preparation of organosilylated carboxylate monomers, and their use in antifouling coatings (Pleheirs, M., and others, Sigma Coatings B.V., Uithoorn, The Netherlands, October 17, 2006, US7122692B2).

Process for the preparation of organosilylated carboxylate monomers comprising the step of reacting an acyloxysilane with an unsaturated carboxylic acid, the monomers and their use as co-monomer unit in the binder of antifouling coating compositions.

Encapsulation of readily oxidizable components (van Lengerich, B., and others, General Mills, Inc. (Plymouth, Minnesota, USA), May 3, 2007, US20070098853A1).

A stabilized emulsion is employed to produce shelf stable, controlled release, discrete, solid particles or pellets which contain an encapsulated and/or embedded component, such as a readily oxidizable component, such as omega-3 fatty acids. An oil encapsulant component that contains an active, sensitive encapsulant, dissolved and/or dispersed in an oil is admixed with an aqueous component and a film-forming component, such as a protein, to form an emulsion. The emulsion is admixed with a matrix material for obtaining a formable mixture or dough. An acidic antioxidant for prevention of oxidation of the active, sensitive encapsulant, and a plasticizer that solubilizes the acidic antioxidant are included in the matrix material, which encapsulates film-coated oil droplets containing the readily oxidizable component. The plasticizer, such as glycerol, provides mobility for the acidic antioxidant within the matrix material of the pellets for reaction with any ambient oxygen and malodorous amines.

Low viscosity vegetable oil-based dielectric fluids (Amanullah, M., and others, Biolectric Pty., Ltd. (Belmont, Western Australia, Australia), April 19, 2007, WO2007041785A1).

The invention provides a low-viscosity vegetable oil-based dielectric fluid composition comprising vegetable oil and alkyl esters. The physical and chemical stability of a dielectric fluid over prolonged periods of use is an important performance requirement. Thus, a vegetable oil with a high monounsaturated fatty acid content, such as high-oleic acid sunflower seed oil, is preferred, in particular a high-oleic acid vegetable oil. A blend of between 40:60 to 60:40 vegetable oil to alkyl ester will afford a dielectric fluid composition with a viscosity of <20 cSt at 40°C.

Production of biodiesel from triglycerides via a thermal route (Ikura, M., Kirby Eades Gale Baker, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, June 21, 2007, US20070137097A1).

A method is presented for producing biodiesel from a triglyceride feedstock. The feedstock is first thermally cracked to remove contaminants and convert triglycerides to form a middle distillate fraction rich in fatty acids. The middle distillate fraction is then esterified in the presence of an alcohol and a catalyst to produce a biodiesel stream. The biodiesel stream can be treated with a basic solution to convert unesterified free fatty acids to nonfoaming metallic soaps, which can be removed by centrifugation, filtering, or a combination thereof. A method is also provided for producing a biodiesel/naphtha mixture, in which a triglyceride feedstock is thermally cracked to produce a middle distillate fraction, a naphtha stream, and a gas stream. The naphtha stream and the middle distillate fraction are then esterified to produce a mixed biodiesel/naphtha stream, which can be treated with a basic solution to convert unesterified free fatty acids to nonfoaming metallic soaps. The basic salts are removed by known means.

Process for the enzymatic synthesis of triglycerides (Schoerken, U., and others, Cognis Corp., Ambler, Pennsylvania, USA, June 28, 2007, US20070148746A1).

The invention relates to a process for the enzymatic synthesis of esters of polyunsaturated, short-chain, or sensitive fatty acids with a high triglyceride content, which is made up of an enzymatic synthesis of the mixture of triglycerides and partial glycerides starting from free fatty acid, methyl or ethyl esters, and glycerol, a subsequent selective enzymatic back-hydrolysis of the partial glycerides to fatty acid and glycerol and distillation-based separation of the triglycerides, and to the triglyceride-rich ester mixtures obtainable by this process. The process is preferably carried out as a one-pot process in the same reactor and in the presence of the same enzyme.

Nonhydrogenated vegetable oil based margarine for puff pastry containing an elevated diglyceride emulsifier (Skogerson, L., and others, Hovey Williams LLP, Kansas City, Missouri, USA, June 28, 2007, US20070148313A1).

A mono-, di-, and triglyceride emulsifier is provided that is obtained by the interesterification or glycerolysis of triglycerides with glycerol. The diglyceride portion, w/w, is at least about 65% to about 80%, and most preferably from about 70% to about 80%. The high diglyceride emulsifier is useful in preparing a margarine from a selected quantity of a nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and from an amount of saturated fat for use in puff pastry products. The puff pastry is trans-fat-free and has a lower-than-usual percentage of saturated fats. A preferred structured puff pastry margarine is prepared by mixing on a weight to weight basis about 14 parts of the high diglyceride emulsifier that is in a predominantly stable beta crystal form, from about 14 to 27 parts of a nonhydrogenated vegetable oil, and from about 40 to about 52 parts of a saturated fat.

Process for the production of diacylglycerol (Oi Ming, L., and others, Nath & Associates, Alexandria, Virginia, USA, June 28, 2007, US20070148745A1).

The present invention provides a process for producing a diacylglycerol, which comprises: reacting triacylglycerol with water and an enzyme to obtain a mixture comprising diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol, and free fatty acid; removing water content in the mixture by way of dehydration; and separating monoacylglycerol, free fatty acid, and residual triacylglycerol by at least one separation method to obtain a high-purity diacylglycerol. An oil or fat composition comprising diacylglycerol obtained from the said process and phytosteryl esters and/or ferulic acid esters in an amount of from 0.5 to 25% by weight of diacylglycerol is also provided.

Phospholipid-stabilized oxidizable material (Moore, J., and Kolar, C., Jr., Solae LLC, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, June 21, 2007, US20070141223A1).

Compositions and methods to reduce the oxidation of an oxidizable material are disclosed herein. A composition comprising a phospholipid-stabilized oxidizable material is disclosed. The composition comprises an oxidizable material, a phospholipid, and an optional protein. The phospholipid reduces the oxidation of the oxidizable material in the absence of water.

Low trans-stereoisomer shortening system (Higgins, N., Bunge North America Inc., St. Louis, Missouri, USA, July 26, 2007, US20070172573A1).

Shortening systems are prepared that include hydrogenated edible oils that are hydrogenated in a manner to minimize the formation of trans-stereoisomers. A conditioned catalyst is used that disfavors trans-stereoisomer formation without significantly negatively impacting the length of time required to form solids for a useful shortening base stock through hydrogenation. Preferred conditioning agents are organic acid phosphates and phosphoric acid. In a preferred embodiment, a confectionary shortening is provided that incorporates a polyglycerol ester emulsifier.