Trivial names of fatty acids-Part 2

The Author: Dr. Albert J. Dijkstra


In 1930, Steger and Van Loon, encountered an unknown, heavily unsaturated fatty acid in the seeds of Couepia grandiflora and not surprisingly, they called it “Couepinezuur”, which can be translated into English as ‘couepinic acid’ (Rev. Trav. Chim., 50, 936 (1931) and 51, 345 (1932)). A few years later Brown and Farmer (Biochem. J., 29, 631 (1935)) isolated a fatty acid from oiticica oil (Licania rigida) and called it ‘α-Licanic acid’ (9Z,11E,13E)-4-Oxooctadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid). Then they discovered that it was the same acid as described by Steger and Van Loon. In the list, both names are mentioned whereby the ‘couepinic acid’ refers to the ‘α-Licanic acid’.

This example, given by Boekenoogen (De Scheikunde der Oliën en Vetten, N.V. A. Oosthoek’s Uitgevers Mij, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1948) clearly illustrates that the allocation of trivial names to fatty acid can be rather chaotic. Fatty acids may have a trivial name in one language and a quite different trivial name in another and in addition, things change. Boekenoogen (loc. cit.) advocates to scrap the name ‘carnaubic acid’ when this ‘acid’ turned out to be an impure sample of lignoceric acid. Accordingly, the entry ‘carnaubic acid’ refers to ‘lignoceric acid’. Fatty acids may have a trivial name in one language but not, or not yet in others since the need to use a trivial name in those other languages had not yet arisen. However, when an occasion to use such a trivial names arises, this can be met in three different ways. It can be ignored by using the systematic name. A new, local trivial name can be coined or the existing, foreign language (i.e. English) trivial name can be transcribed.

But take ‘fumaric acid’, ‘stearic’, and ‘margaric acid’. All three of them end on “...aric”, but their German translations are ‘Fumarsäure’, Stearinsäure and ‘Margarinsäure’. What is the rule and what is the exception? Should the rule be that ‘..aric acid’ becomes ‘..arsäure’ as in Fumarsäure or becomes ‘...arinsäure’ as in Stearinsäure and Margarinsäure? Well, it so happens that Stearinsäure and Margarinsäure are the only acids listed in Table 1 (Part 1) that have the ‘...arinsäure’ translation, so these acids become the exception and the translation to ‘...arsäure’ is the rule. In fact, the exceptions are not that exceptional since a general rule will be given that ‘...ic acid’ is transcribes as ‘...insäure”

After the description of the transcription rules, a table (Table 3) is given that has the same list of fatty acids as Table 1 (Part 1). This table lists the Russian and Japanese names and for ease of reference, I have also included the exceptions. So this table has four columns:

  1. The trivial English name. Accordingly, this column is identical to the column of Table 1.
  2. The exceptions and illustrations. For some fatty acids, this columns lists per language (DE, German; ES, Spanish; FR, French. IT, Italian; NL, Dutch; PT, Portuguese) the non-English trivial names that are exceptions to the transcription rules. For instance: According to the transcription rules from English to German, ‘butyric acid’ should be ‘Butyrinsäure’. Instead it is ‘Buttersäure’ so the latter is mentioned in this column. According to the transcription rules English to French, the same acid should be ‘acide butyrique’ in French; this is the correct translation so no mention is made in the exception column.
  3. The Katakana transcription into Japanese, which column also contains some Japanese trivial names.
  4. The Russian trivial names that have been retrieved from Russian literature. Consequently, this column has a fair number of blank cells. No attempt has been made so far to arrive at transcription rules from English to Russian that would allow to fill these blank cells

Transcription from English into French

The trivial names I managed to find in French can all be arrived at by changing the final ‘c’ in the English name by ‘que’. Accordingly, “lauric acid” is translated into “acide laurique”. The spelling of what comes before that final ‘c’ remains unchanged but may need one or more accents. In French, the ‘ai’ indicating a single trans bond like in elaidic acid, changes to ‘aï’, with a diaeresis mark on the ‘i’ to indicate that it is sounded separately as in ‘naïve’, acide élaïdique. In addition, the letter ‘e’ is given an acute accent because it occurs at the end of a syllable that is followed by one or more syllables. So the ‘e’ in ‘acide’ does not get an acute but in “acide cétoléique” both ‘e’s get an acute. Because the ‘e’ before the ‘i’ in ‘cétoléique’ has this acute accent that indicates that it is the end of a syllable, there is no need to put a diaeresis mark in the ‘i’.

There are several trivial names for fatty acids that refer to a person, for instance “Mead’s acid”. In French, this becomes “acide de Mead” (about 19,000 hits in Google). In fact, I made extensive use of Google to arrive at this and similar findings. I therefore advise readers to verify names in French and other languages by searching for them in Google. This also told me that the translation of ‘farnesenic acid’ into French is ‘acide farnesénique’ and not ‘acide farnésénique’ (with two acutes).

The French systematic names of fatty acids can also be easily be formed from the English names by changing the ending ‘oic’ to ‘oïque’, where the diaeresis mark indicates that the ‘o’ is the end of a syllable. Acute accents occur on the e’s in numeral parts like ‘tétra’ and déca’, and when unsaturation is indicated by an ‘e’ as in oleic acid: “acide octadécénoïque”. How to indicate the position of the double bond is as confusing in France as elsewhere. I have come across: “acide cis-9-octadécénoïque”, “acide cis-octadéc-9-énoïque” and “acide cis octadécène-9-oïque”, where the last version also shows a grave accent on the ‘e’.

Transcription from English into Spanish and Portuguese

Since I know neither Spanish nor Portuguese, I had to call on the local fatty acid experts mentioned in Part 1. I am most grateful to them both. It soon became clear to me that the transcription rules to Spanish and Portuguese would be far more complicated than those into French but that they would have a lot in common so I tried to combine these two sets of rules. For instance, in both languages the word for acid (ácido) is written in front of the name like in French and Italian, rather than behind like in English, German, etc. Both languages also indicate which syllable in a word has to be stressed if this is not the one but last.

  1. As a rule, the English name can be translated into Spanish or Portuguese by adding the letter “o” to the name: “linoleic acid” → “ácido linoleico”.
  2. In this example, the word ‘linoleico’ has no stress accent, which implies that the stress falls on the one but last (penultimate) syllable, which in this case is the ‘ei’. The vowels a, e, and o are strong in Spanish. They always form their own syllable wherever they appear. The vowels u and i are weak, and when a weak vowel is next to a strong vowel or another weak vowel, they AUTOMATICALLY form a diphthong, that is, just one syllable. An accent mark will also be placed over a weak vowel (u or i) in order to break an automatic diphthong. In this case the word would have an extra syllable. Fatty acids, which always end on the vowel ‘o’, have the stress nearly always on the second but last syllable, so this has to be indicated by an acute. Accordingly “caproic acid” becomes “ácido capróico” with an acute accent on the ‘o’. Fatty acids that end in English on ‘eic’ or ‘aic’ are stressed on these syllables in Spanish and Portuguese so they don’t need an accent: “ácido oleico”, “ácido azelaico”
    1. 2.1. In Portuguese, there is a different accent on the strong vowels ‘a’, the ‘e’ and the ‘o’ when they stand before an ‘n’ or an ‘m’. So “isanic acid” becomes “ácido isânico” in Portuguese”. In Spanish, this will be “ácido isánico”.
  3. Names that in English start with an ‘s’ followed by a consonant such as “stearic acid” and “sterculic acid” get an ‘e’ in front of them when they are translated into Spanish or Portuguese, cf. Spain → España. So “stearic acid” becomes “ácido esteárico”. This also holds when the name starts with a prefix like ‘eleo’, ‘iso’, ‘neo’ or ‘subtilo’. For example “ácido isoesteárico” or “ácido demoespôngico”.
  4. In both languages, the ‘k’ only exists in words like kilogram. I am willing to bet that Spanish and Portuguese Scrabble® games do not include a ‘k’. This is a fairly safe bet since I know that the French Scrabble® does not have a ’k’. On translation, the ‘k’ is changed. When followed by an ‘i’, it becomes ‘qu’ and when followed by an ‘e’ or an ‘o’, it becomes a ‘c’ So “bolekic acid” becomes “ácido boléquico” and “bolekolec acid” becomes “ácido bolecólico”.
  5. With the ‘ch’ similar rules apply. When in front of an ‘i’ or ‘e’, it is changed into ‘qu’: “arachidic acid becomes “ácido araquídico”. When followed by another letter, it becomes a ‘c’; “selacholeic acid” becomes therefore “ácido selacoleico”.
  6. Every ‘y’ in English names should be replaced by an ‘i’ in both languages: y → i. That holds for names such as “acrylic” (“acrílico”) or “isobutyric” (“isobutírico”) and for prefixes and postfixes. “hydroxy” becomes ‘hidroxi”, “...ynoic” becomes “...inóico”, etc.
  7. The ‘h’ in the ‘th’ in English names should be scrapped in both languages: th → t. So “eranthic acid” is translates as “ácido erántico”(Spanish) or “ácido erântico” (Portuguese).
    1. 7.1. In Portuguese, the ‘h’, when between two vowels, such as in “behenic acid” is deleted as well: “ácido beénico” but in Spanish, the ‘h’ is maintained (“ácido behénico”).
    2. 7.2. The ‘gh’ in English names becomes ‘gu’ on translation: “gheddic acid’ translates into “ácido guédico”
    3. 7.3. The ‘sh’ in English names is translated to‘ch’: “goshuyic acid” becomes “ácido gochuico”
    4. 7.4. The ‘h’ in English names starting with ‘dehydro’ also disappears on translation into Portuguese and is replaced by an ‘s’: “dehydrocrepenynic acid” becomes “ácido desidrocrepenínico”, but in Spanish it is “ácido dehidrocrepenínico”.
    5. 7.5. In Portuguese, the ‘h’ is maintained when it is the first letter of the word. So in names like ‘ácido heptanóico’, the ‘h’ is not deleted and when names starting with an ‘h’ have a prefix that ends on a vowel, a hyphen is inserted between the prefix and the name: “ácido di-homolinoleico”, “ácido iso-heptanóico” or ”ácido docosa-hexenóico”; no such hyphens are inserted into Spanish names.
  8. Similarly, the ‘h’ coming after an ‘r’ in English names should be dropped on transcribing: “rhodinic acid” → “ácido rodínico”
  9. And again the ‘h’ after a ‘g’ is omitted on translation into Portuguese: “roughanic acid” → “ácido rugânico”
    1. 9.1. The name of this acid also shows that in Portuguese, the ‘ou’ has to be changed to an ‘u’ on translation. “Couepinic acid” is “ácido cuepínico” in Portuguese, but in Spanish, the ‘ou’ is kept: “ácido couepínico”.
  10. If the ‘h’ in the English name is preceded by a ‘p’, this ‘ph’ is changed into an ‘f’ on translation: “ephedrenic acid” → “ácido efedrénico”.
  11. Both Spanish and Portuguese have rules about double consonants like the two c’s in ‘vaccenic acid.
    1. 11.1. One of these c’s is deleted on translating into Spanish or Portuguese so that on translation, “vaccenic acid” becomes “ácido vacénico”; there is an exception though in that ‘succinic acid’ keeps its to c’s on translation: “ácido succínico” in both Spanish and Portuguese.
    2. 11.2. The double ‘d’ becomes a single ‘d’ after translation: “geddic acid” becomes “ácido gédico”
    3. 11.3. Double l’s also becomes a single ‘l’ on translation: “laballenic acid” becomes “ácido labalénico”.
    4. 11.4. This also holds for the double ‘n’: “thynnic acid” becomes “ácido tínico”, which translation also illustrates points 5 and 6 above.
    5. 11.5. Similarly for the double ‘r’: “kerrolic acid” becomes “ácido cerólico”, which translation illustrates point 4 above.
    6. 11.6. Finally the double ‘t’ is also changed into a single one: So “ambrettolic acid” becomes: “ácido ambretólico”.
    7. 11.7. In Portuguese, a single s is changed into a double one in “hydrosorbic acid”, which becomes “ácido hidrossorbico” and “physeteric acid”, which becomes “ácido fissetérico” when the ‘s’ is pronounced as an ‘s’. When the pronunciation is softer, more like a ‘z’ as in “petroselic acid”, a single ‘s’ is written: “ácido petrosélico”.

Transcription from English into Italian

Since I don’t know Italian either, I had to rely on expert advice that is hereby warmly acknowledged. Like the translation into Spanish and Portuguese, the translation from English into Italian can also be summarised in a number of consecutive rules.

  1. As in the other Romanic languages, the word ‘acido’ (acid) is put in front of the trivial name, but unlike Spanish or Portuguese, it carries no accent.
  2. The Italian trivial name can be arrived at by putting an ‘o’ behind the English trivial name: ‘cerotic acid’ becomes ‘acido cerotico’.
  3. Change any ‘y’ in the English name to an ‘i’: ‘pyruvic acid’ translates into ‘acido piruvico’, and ‘acrylic acid’ becomes ‘acido acrilico’.
  4. Like Spanish and Portuguese, Italian does not use the ‘ph’ either; it should be changed into an ‘f’: ‘phytanic acid’ becomes ‘acido fitanico’, which example also illustrates rule 3 (y → i).
  5. Delete any ‘h’ from the English name if it starts with an ‘h’ or the ‘h’ follows a vowel: ‘homophytanic acid’ becomes ‘acido omofitanico’, which example also illustrates two previous rules (y → i and ph → f); ‘behenic acid’ becomes ‘acido beenico’ and ‘dihomolinoleic acid’ becomes ‘acido diomolinolenico’. However, after a consonant, the ‘h’ is retained: ‘shibic acid’ translates into ‘acido shibico’.
  6. Change ‘x’ to ‘ss’: ‘taxoleic acid’ becomes ‘acido tassoleico’. However, this rule does not apply when the trivial name starts with an ‘x’: ‘ximenic acid’ retains its ‘x’ in ‘acido ximenico’.

Transcription from English into German and Dutch

As opposed to Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and French, the German and Dutch languages have coined quite a few trivial names of their own. Take acetic acid for instance. German and Dutch call this “vinegar acid” and that is what it is. Those trivial names and irregular names that are not to be translated according to the rules to be given below, have therefore been incorporated in Table 3 below after the English trivial name.

If the German or Dutch language has not a trivial name of its own, the English name can be transcribed by using the rules listed in Table 2 below. This table is based on the endings of the trivial names. So the ending ‘...alic acid” indicates the group of acids to which ‘malvalic acid’ belongs. In the column indicating how to translate this acid into German, it reads “ → ...ansäure” which means that the German word for ‘malvalic acid is ‘Malvansäure’.


The endings have been listed alphabetically except for the last one. That ending rule can only be applied when none of the others can be applied. For instance, “elaidic acid” has an ending ‘...idic’. This has not been listed, so the last rule applies leading to Elaidinsäure/elaidinezuur. I have arrived at these rules by first of all using the German fatty acid names listed in the SOFA website and the Dutch names given by Boekenoogen (loc.cit), and using Google to see if a ‘translated’ name existed. If the attempted translation turned out to exist, it confirmed the rule. If no hits were found, this indicated that no trivial name had been coined as yet. It is interesting to note that Boekenoogen, to whom I am distantly related, coined a number of Dutch names himself when referring to Japanese literature about highly unsaturated fatty acids in whale oil.

If the English name referred to another, more frequently used name, only the latter was taken into account when listing the trivial names that have precedence over the translation rules. Fatty acids named after a person (Mangold’s acid, Mead’s acid, Mikusch’s acid and Osbond’s acid) keep these names, except that in German, Mikusch gets his prefix ‘von’ back: “Von Mikusch Säure”. Although halphen acid is named after G. Halphen, this acid is not called Halphen’s acid; it is also known as halphenic acid, malvalic acid, malvalinic acid and malvic acid. English names with other endings such as “mycomycin” do not change on translation; similarly ‘jacaranda acid’ becomes ‘Jacarandasäure’ in German.

Table 3
Trivial name (acid) Exceptions/Examples Japanese name Russian name
Acetic DE: Essigsäure
NL: azijnzuur
酢酸、 ビネガー酸 Уксусная
Acetonic   アセトン酸 α-гидроксиизомасляная
Acrylic   アクリル酸 Акриловая
Adipic   アジピン酸 Адипиновая
Adrenic   アドレン酸 Адреновая
Agonandoic   アゴナンドン酸 Крепениновая
Agonandric   アゴナンド酸  
Ajenoic   アジェン酸  
Alchornoic   アルコルノ酸 Алхорниевая
Alepramic   アレプラ酸 Алепрамиковая
Aleprestic   アレプレスト酸 Алепрестовая
Alepric NL: aleprazuur アレプリン酸 Алеприновая
Aleprolic   アレプロール酸 Алепроловая
Aleprylic   アレプリル酸 Алеприловая
Aleuritic   アロイリチン酸 Алейритовая
Alvaradoic DE: Alvaradoasäure    
Ambrettolic   アンブレットール酸 Амбреттоловая
Anacyclic DE: Anacyclussäure    
Angelic DE: Angelicasäure/
アンゲリカ酸、 アンジェリカ酸 Ангеликовая
Anteisoheptadecanoic   アンテイソヘプタデカン酸、
Anteisononadecanoic   アンテイソノナデカン酸  
Anteisononanoic   アンテイソノナン酸 См. Изопеларгоновая
Anteisopentadecanoic   アンテイソペンタデカン酸  
Anteisotridecanoic   アンテイソトリデカン酸  
Apionic   アピオン酸  
Aquilegic DE: Aquilegiasäure    
Arachidic DE: Arachinsäure
IT:  acido arachico
NL: arachinezuur
アラキジン酸 Арахиновая
Arachidonic   アラキドン酸 Арахидоновая
α-Artemisolic   コリオール酸  
Asclepic   アスクレピン酸 Асклеповая
Auricolic   アウリコール酸  
Avenoleic   アベノール酸  
Axillarenic (Axillaric)   アクシラレン酸  
Azelaic   アゼライン酸

Behenic   ベヘン酸、  ベヘニン酸 Бегеновая
Behenolic   ベヘノール酸 Бегенолевая
Bishomocolumbinic   ビスホモコルンビン酸  
Bishomo-gamma-linolenic   ビスホモ-γ-リノレン酸  
Bishomopinolenic   ビスホモピノレン酸  
Bolekic DE: Bolekosäure    
Bosseopentaenoic   ボセオペンタエン酸  
Brassidic   ブラシジン酸、 イソエルシン酸 Брассидиновая
Brassylic   ブラシル酸、 ブラッシル酸 Брассиловая
Builic (jalapinolic)   ヤラピノール酸、
Butolic   ブトール酸  
Butyric DE: Buttersäure
IT: acido butirrico
NL: boterzuur
酪酸 Масляная

Calendic (α) DE: Calendulasäure α-カレンド酸 Календовая (α)
Calendic (β)   β-カレンド酸 Календовая (β)
Callosobruchusic   カロソブルクス酸  
Capric   カプリン酸 Каприновая
Caproic DE: Capronsäure
NL: capronzuur
ヘキサン酸、 カプロン酸、
Caproleic   カプロレイン酸 Каротиноидная
Caprylic   オクタン酸、 カプリル酸 Каприловая
Carboceric   ヘプタコサン酸、
Cascarillic   カスカリル酸 Каскариловая
Catalpic DE: Catalpasäure カタルプ酸、 カタルピン酸 Каталпиковая
Cerebronic   セレブロン酸、 フレノシン酸 Цереброновая
Ceroplastic   セロプラスチン酸 Церопластовая
Cerotic   セロチン酸 Церотиновая
Cetelaidic   カテラド酸 Цетолеиновая (транс-)
Cetoleic   セトレイン酸、 鯨油酸、
Цетолеиновая (цис-)
Chaulmoogric DE: Chaulmoograsäure
NL: chaulmograzuur
Citraconic   シトラコン酸 Цитраконовая
Citramalic DE: Citrapfelsäure
IT: acido citromalico
Civetic   シベト酸  
CLA   共役リノール酸 Конъюгированная линолевая кислота,
сопряженная линолевая кислота
Clupadonic   クルパノドン酸、イワシ酸 Клупадоновая
Colneleic   コルネル酸  
Colnelenic   コルネレン酸、 コロネレン酸  
Columbinic   コルンビン酸、 コロンビン酸、
Coniferonic DE: Koniferonsäure コニフェロン酸 Конифероновая
Convolvulinolic (1 of 3)      
Convolvulinolic (2 of 3)      
Convolvulinolic (3 of 3) DE: Convolvulinsäure コンボルブリノール酸  
Coriolic   コリオール酸 Кориоловая
Coronaric   コロナル酸 Коронаровая
Corynomycolic   コリノミコール酸 Кориномиколовая
Crepenynic   クレペニン酸 Крепениновая
Crotonic   trans-クロトン酸、 クロトン酸 Кротоновая
Cucurbic   ククルビン酸 Кукурбиновая

Dehydrocrepenynic   デヒドロクレペニン酸 Дегидрокрепениновая
Dehydromatricaric   デヒドロマトリカリン酸  
Demospongic ES: demoespongico   Демоспонговые кислоты
Dendryphiellic A   デンドリフィエル酸  
Dendryphiellic B   デンドリフィエル酸  
Densipolic   デンシポリン酸 Денсиполовая
DHA   ドコサヘキサエン酸 Докозагексаеновая
Diabolic acid      
Dicramin   ジクラニン  
Digitoxic     Дигитоксиновая (триоксикапроновая)
Dihomogamma-linolenic   ジホモ-γ-リノレン酸 Дигомо-гамма-линоленовая
Dihomolinoleic   ジホモリノレイン酸、
Dihomolinolenic   ジホモリノレン酸 Дигомо-линоленовая
Dihomo Mead’s acid   ジホモミード酸  
Dihomopinolenic   ジホモピノレン酸 Дигомо-пиноленовая
Dihomotaxoleic   ジホモタキソール酸  
Dihydrofulgidic   ジホモフルギド酸  
Dihydromalvalic   ジヒドロマルバル酸  
Dihydromalyngic   ジヒドロマリング酸  
α-Dimorphecolic     α-Диморфеколовая
β-Dimorphecolic     β-Диморфеколовая
DPA   オズボンド酸、
Drosophilin C   ドロソフィリンC Дрозофилин C
Drosophilin D   ドロソフィリンD Дрозофилин D

Elaidic   エライジン酸 Элаидиновая
Eleostearic (α) DE: Eleostearinsäure
NL: eleostearinezuur
α-エレオステアリン酸 α-Элеостеариновая
Eleostearic (β) DE: Eleostearinsäure
NL: eleostearinezuur
β-エレオステアリン酸 β-Элеостеариновая
Enanthic (enanthoic)   ヘプタン酸、 アミル酢酸、
エナント酸、 ヘプチル酸、
エナンチル酸、 n-ヘプト酸、
См. Энантовая
EPA   イコサペンタエン酸、
エイコサペンタエン酸、 チムノドン酸
Ephedrenic   エフェドレン酸  
Equisetolic   エキセトール酸 Триаконтановая
Eranthic DE: Eranthissäure    
Erucic DE: Erucasäure
NL: erucazuur
エルカ酸 Эруковая
D-Erythronic   D-エリトロン酸 D-Эритроновая
L-Erythronic   L-エリトロン酸 L-Эритроновая
Exocarpic DE: Exocarpussäure エキソカルピン酸  

Farnesenic   ファルネス酸、 ファルネシル酸、
ファルネセン酸、 ファルネソール酸、
Ficulinic A   フィクリン酸A  
Ficulinic B   フィクリン酸B  
Floionic   フロイオン酸 Флоионовая
Fomentaric   フォメンタル酸 Фоментаровая
Fulgidic   フルギド酸、 コルコリ脂肪酸F、
Fumaric   フマル酸、 ボレチン酸、
アロマレイン酸、 パラマレイン酸、

Gadelaidic   ガデライド酸  
Gadoleic   ガドレイン酸 Гадолеиновая
Gaidic   ガイド酸、 ヒポゲン酸、
ヒポゲ酸、 ガイジン酸
Galactaric   ガラクタル酸、 粘液酸、
ガラクト糖酸、 ムチン酸、
Галактаровая (слизевая, муциновая)
Geddic     Геддовая
Geranic   ゲラン酸 Гераниевая
GLA   ガモレン酸、 γ-リノレン酸 Гамма-линоленовая (ГЛК)
cis-Glutaconic     цис-Глутаконовая
Glutamic   グルタミン酸、
Glutaric   グルタル酸、 n-ピロ酒石酸、
Glycolic   グリコール酸 Щавелевая
Gondoic DE: Gondosäure ゴンド酸 Гондоиновая
Gondoleic   ゴンドレイン酸  
Gorlic DE: Gorlicsäure
NL: gorlizuur
ゴルル酸、 ゴオリック酸 Горликовая
Goshuyic   セバレイン酸  

Helenynolic   ヘレニノール酸 Гелениноловая
Hiragonic   ヒラゴニン酸 Хирагоновая
Hormelic   ホルメル酸  
Hydnocarpic DE: Hydnocarpussäure
NL: hydnocarpuszuur
Hydrosorbic   ヒドロソルビン酸 Гидросорбиновая
Hyenic DE: Hyänasäure
FR: hyénique
NL: hyenazuur
ヒエン酸 Гиениновая

Ipurolic     Ипуроловая
Isanic NL: isanozuur ボレス酸、 イサニン酸、
Эритрогеновая, изановая
Isanolic   イサノール酸 Изаноловая
Δ5 Isoambrettolic   Δ5-イソアンブレットール酸  
Δ6 Isoambrettolic   Δ6-イソアンブレットール酸  
Δ9 Isoambrettolic   Δ9-イソアンブレットール酸  
Isoarachidic   イソアラキジン酸 Изоарахиновая
Isobehenic   イソベヘン酸 Изобегеновая
Isobutyric   イソ酪酸、 イソプロピルぎ酸 Изомасляная
Isocapric   イソカプリン酸 Изокаприновая
Isocaproic   イソカプロン酸、 4-メチル吉草酸、
Isocaprylic   イソカプリル酸 Изокаприловая
Isocerotic   イソセロチン酸 Изоцеротиновая
Isocrotonic   イソクロトン酸、 cis-クロトン酸、
β-クロトン酸、 アロクロトン酸
Isogorlic   イソゴルル酸、 イソゴオリック酸 Изогорликовая
Isoheptadecanoic   イソヘプタデカン酸、 イソマルガリン酸、
Isohexadecanoic   イソパルミチン酸  
Isohexanoic   イソカプロン酸、 イソヘキサン酸 Изокапроновая
Isolauric   イソラウリル酸 Изолауриновая
L-Isoleucic   イソロイシン酸  
Isomargaric   イソヘプタデカン酸、 イソマルガリン酸、
Isomontanic   イソモンタン酸 Изомонтановая
Isomycomycin   イソミコマイシン Изомикомицин
Isomyristic   イソミリスチン酸、 アセアノスタチンP1 Изомиристиновая
Isononadecanoic   イソノナデカン酸  
Isononanoic   イソノナン酸、 イソペラルゴン酸 Изопеларгоновая
Isooctadecanoic   イソオクタデカン酸 Изостеариновая
Isooleic   イソオレイン酸 Изоолеиновая
Isopalmitic   イソパルミチン酸 Изопальмитиновая
Isopentacosanoic   イソペンタコサン酸 Изопентакозановая
Isopentadecanoic   イソペンタデカン酸 Изопентадекановая
Isoricinoleic   イソリシノール酸 Изорицинолевая
Isostearic   イソステアリン酸 Изостеариновая
Isotricosanoic   イソトリコサン酸 Изотрикозановая
Isotridecanoic   イソトリデカン酸 Изотридекановая
Isotridecenoic     Изодеценовая
Itaconic   イタコン酸 Итаконовая
Isovaleric   イソペンタン酸 Изовалериановая
Ixoric DE: Ixorasäure    

Jacaranda DE: Jacarandasäure    
Jalapinolic   ジャラピノール酸、 ヤラピノール酸 Ялапиноловая
Japanic DE: Japansäure
IT: giapanico
NL: japanzuur
日本酸、 ヘニコサン二酸 Японовая
Jasmonic   ジャスモン酸 Жасмоновая
Juniperic   ジュニペル酸、 ジュニペリン酸 Можжевеловая
Juniperonic   ジュニペロン酸  

Kamlolenic (α)   α-カムロレニン酸 α-Камлоленовая
Kamlolenic (β)   β-カムロレニン酸 β-Камлоленовая
Keteleeronic   ケテレエロン酸、 ケテレエロニン酸  

Laballenic   ラベレン酸 Лабалленовая
Lacceric   ラッセル酸  
Lactarinic     Лактариновая
Lactic DE: Milchsäure
IT: lattico
NL: melkzuur
乳酸、 ミルク酸 Молочная
β-Lactic     β-Молочная
Lactobacillic   ラクトバシル酸、 ラクトバチルス酸 Лактобацилловая
Laetisaric   (8R)-8-ヒドロキシリノール酸  
Lanoceric     Ланоцериновая
(R)-Lamenallenic   ラメナレン酸  
(S)-Lamenallenic   ラメナレン酸  
Lauric   ラクトバシル酸、 ドデシル酸、
Lauroleic   ラウロレイン酸 Лауроолеиновая
Lauroleinic     Додеценовая
Lesquerolic   レスクエロール酸 Лесквероловая
Leucic   ロイシン酸 Лейциновая
Levulinic   レブリン酸、 レブリン酸、
レブル酸、 γ-ケト吉草酸、
Licanic (α)   α-リカン酸 α-ликановая
Licanic (β)   β-リカン酸 β-ликановая
Lichesterinic or
Lichesterylic   リケステリル酸  
Lignoceric   リケステリル酸 Лигноцериновая
Linderic DE: Linderasäure
NL: linderazuur
リンデル酸 Линдеровая
Linoleic DE: Linolsäure
NL: linolzuur
リノール酸、 リノレイン酸、
Linolenelaidic   リノレンエライジン酸  
Linolenic   リノレン酸 α-Линоленовая
Linusic   リヌ シン酸  
Lumequic IT: lumechico ルメーク酸、 ルメキン酸  
Lycaonic   リカオン酸  

Maleic   マレイン酸 Малеиновая
DL-Malic DE: Apfelsäure
NL: appelzuur
Malonic   マロン酸 Малоновая
Malvalic   マルバル酸 Мальваловая (мальвовая)
Malyngic   マリング酸  
Manaoic/manoaic   マノア酸  
Manaoic/manoaic   マノア酸  
Mangold’s NL: ricineenzuur (9E,11E)-リノール酸  
Margaric DE: Margarinsäure
NL: margarinezuur
マルガリン酸、 マーガリン酸、
Matricaric acid DE: Matricariasäure マトリカリア酸  
Z,E-Matricaric   Z,E-マトリカリア酸  
Mead’s acid   ミード酸 Мидовая кислота
Megatomic (megatomoic) DE: Megatomsäure メガトモ酸 Мегатомовая
Mesaconic   メサコン酸 Мезаконовая
Melissic   メリシン酸 Мелиссиновая
Methacrylic acid   メタクリル酸 Метакриловая
Mevalonic   メバロン酸 Мевалоновая
Micolipodienoic   ミコリペン酸  
Mikusch’s acid   ミクシュ酸 10,12-Линолевая кислота
Minquartynoic   ミンクアルチン酸  
Montanic   モンタン酸 Монтановая
Moroctic DE: Moroctsäure
NL: moroctzuur
Cis,cis-Muconic   Cis,cis-ムコン酸 Цис,цис-муконовая
Mycinonic   ミシノン酸  
Mycoceranic   ミコセラン酸  
Mycocerosic   ミコセロシン酸 Микоцерозовая
Mycolipenic   ミコリペン酸 Миколипеновая
Mycomycin   ミコマイシン Микомицин
Mycosanoic     Микомицин
Myristelaidic   ミリストエライジン酸、
Myristic   ミリスチン酸、 テトラデシル酸 Миристиновая
Myristoleic DE: Myristölsäure ミリストオレイン酸、

Nemotinic   ネモチン酸 Немотиновая
Neostearic   ネオステアリン酸  
Nerolic   ネロール酸、 ネリン酸、ゲラン酸  
Nervonic   ネルボン酸、 サメ油酸、
Нервоновая, ацетэруковая
Nisinic   ニシン酸 Низиновая
Norlinoleic   ノルリノール酸  
Norlinolenic   ノルリノレン酸  

Obtusilic   オブツシル酸、 トウハク酸、
Oleic DE: Ölsäure
NL: oliezuur
オレイン酸 Олеиновая
Oncobic DE: Oncobasäure オンコブ酸  
Oxalic   シュウ酸 Щавелевая

Palmitelaidic   パルミトエライジン酸  
Palmitic   パルミチン酸、 セチル酸、
Palmitoleic   パルミトオレイン酸、
Palmitolic   パルミトール酸  
Palmitvaccenic   パルミトバクセン酸 Цис-вакценовая (пальмитовакценовая)
Parinaric (α) NL: parinariumzuur α-パリナリン酸 α-Паринаровая
Parinaric (β) NL: parinariumzuur β-パリナリン酸 β-Паринаровая
Paullinic   ポーリン酸  
Pelargonic   ペラルゴン酸、 ペラルグ酸、
ペルゴン酸、 ノニル酸
Petroselaidic   ペトロセライジン酸、
Petroselinic   ペトロセリン酸 Петроселиновая
Phellogenic   フェロゲン酸 Феллогеновая
Phellonic   フェロン酸 Феллоновая
Phloionic   フロイオン酸 См. Флоионовая
Phloionolic   アロイリチン酸、 アロイリット酸  
Phlomic   フロム酸  
Phthioic   フチオン酸、 フチオイ酸  
Physeteric   フィセテル酸  
Phytanic   フィタン酸 Фитановая
Phytenic   フィテン酸、 フィテノン酸  
Pimelic   ピメリン酸、 ピレル酸 Пимелиновая
Pinolenic   ピノレン酸 Пиноленовая
Pivalic   ピバル酸、 トリメチル酢酸、
Podocarpic DE: Podocarpussäure ポドカルピン酸 Сциадоновая
Pristanic   プリスタン酸 Пристановая
Propiolic   プロピオル酸、 プロピオール酸、
プロピン酸、 プロパルギル酸
Propionic   プロゾイン、 メタセトン酸、
カルボキシエタン、 モノプロプ、
ルプロシル、 プソイド酢酸、
メチル酢酸、 アドフィード、
Prostanoic   プロスタン酸 Простановая
Pseudoeleostearic DE: Pseudoeleo-stearinsäure シュードエレオステアリン酸 Псевдоэлеостеариновая
Psyllic   セロメリッシン Псилластеариловая
Punicic   プニカ酸、 プニク酸 Пуниковая
Pyroterebic   ピロテレブ酸  
Pyrulic   ピルール酸 Пируловая
Pyruvic   ピルビン酸、 アセチルぎ酸、

Rhodinic   シトロネル酸 Родиновая
Ricinelaidic   リシネライジン酸、
Ricinenic   リシネニック酸  
Ricinstearolic   リシンステアロール酸、
Rosilic   10-ヒドロキシステアリン酸 Розиловая
Roughanic acid      
Rumelenic   ルメレン酸  
Rumenic   ルメン酸 Руменовая

Sabinic   サビニン酸 Сабиновая
Santalbic   キシメニン酸、 サンタルビン酸 Санталбовая
Sapienic   サピエン酸 Сапиеновая
Sarcinic   アンテイソペンタデカン酸  
Sativic (sativinic)   サチビン酸 Триоксистеариновая, сативиновая
Sciadopinolenic     Сциадоновая
Sebacic   セバシン酸 Себациновая
Sebaleic   セバレイン酸  
trans-Selacholeic DE: Selachinsäure セラコレイン酸  
Sorbic   ソルビン酸 Сорбиновая
Stearic DE: Stearinsäure
NL: stearinezuur
ステアリン酸 Стеариновая
Stearolic   ステアロール酸 Стеароловая
Sterculic   ステルクル酸 Стеркуловая
Sterculynic   ステルクリン酸 Стеркулиновая
cis,cis-Stillingic   Cis,cis-スチリング酸  
trans,cis-Stillingic   Trans,cis-スチリング酸  
Suberic DE: Korksäure
NL: kurkzuur
スベリン酸 Пробковая, субериновая
Succinic DE: Barnsteinsäure
NL: barnsteenzuur
コハク酸 Янтарная

Tariric DE: Tarirsäure
NL: taririzuur
タリリン酸 Тарировая
Tartaric   酒石酸 Винная
Taxoleic   タキソール酸 Таксолевая
Thalictric DE: Thalictrumsäure 唐松草酸 яТаликтрова
Thapsic   タプス酸、 タプシン酸 Тапсиевая
(+/–) Threonic   トレオニン、 スレオニン Треоновая
Tiglic   チグリン酸、 チグル酸、
Traumatic   トラウマト酸、 タウマチン酸 Травматиновая
Traumatin   トラウマチン  
Tridecylic   トリデシル酸 Тридекановая (тридециловая)
Tsuzuic DE: Tsususäure
NL: Tsoezoezuur
ツズ酸、 ツズイック酸 Цузуевая
Tuberculostearic   ツベルクロステアリン酸 Туберкулостеаровая
Turpetholic A, B, C, E      

Undecylenic   ウンデシレン酸 ウンデルシレン酸、
デセネックス ウンデシレン酸
Undecylic   ウンデシル酸、 ヘンデカン酸、
Ursolic   ウルソール酸、 ウルソン、
マロール、 プルノール
Ustilic A   ウスチリン酸A Устиловая А
Ustilic B   ウスチリン酸B Устиловая В

Vaccenic   バクセン酸 транс-Вакценовая
Valeric DE: Valeriansäure
NL: valeriaanzuur
吉草酸、 バレリアン酸 Валериановая
Valproic   バルプロ酸、バルプロン酸、
2-プロピル吉草酸、 エピリム、
デパキン、 エルゲニル、
Vernolic   ベルノル酸、 ベルノール酸 Верноловая

Wyeronic   ウィエロン酸  

Ximenic   キシメン酸 Ксименовая
Ximenynic   キシメニン酸 Ксименовая, Ксимениновая
Ximenynolic   キシメニノール酸  


The author would be delighted to learn of additions or corrections to this list or to receive any general comments.