Gerhard Knothe M.S., Ph.D.

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Gerhard Knothe obtained M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemistry at the University of Bremen, Germany. After a brief postdoctoral appointment, he has been affiliated with the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Peoria, IL, since 1989. Over the years, his research has focused on vegetable oil-derived diesel fuels (biodiesel) and some oleochemistry, which has included the use of NMR and MS. He has more than 80 publications to his credit and is scheduled to receive the Industrial Uses of Soybeans Award sponsored by the USB/AOCS. He edited (together with two co-editors) The Biodiesel Handbook. He lectures in courses on biodiesel.

Books:

  • The Biodiesel Handbook; G. Knothe, J. Van Gerpen, J. Krahl, editors; AOCS Press, 2005.
  • Recent Developments in the Synthesis of Novel Fatty Acid Derivatives; G. Knothe, J.T.P. Derksen, editors; AOCS Press, 1999.

Selected Publications:

  • Knothe, G., Sharp, C. A., and Ryan, III, T. W. Exhaust emissions of biodiesel, petrodiesel, neat methyl esters, and alkanes in a new technology engine. Energy and Fuels, 20, 403-408 (2006).
  • Knothe, G. and Steidley, K. R. Lubricity of components of biodiesel and petrodiesel. The origin of biodiesel lubricity. Energy and Fuels, 19, 1192-1200 (2005).
  • Kenar, J. A., Knothe, G., Dunn, R. O., Ryan, III, T. W., and Matheaus, A. C. Physical properties of oleochemical carbonates. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 82, 201-205 (2005).
  • Knothe, G. and Steidley, K. R. Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel fuel components and related compounds. Influence of compound structure and comparison to petrodiesel fuel components. Fuel, 84, 1059-1065 (2005).
  • Knothe, G. Dependence of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl esters. Fuel Proc. Technol., 86, 1059-1070 (2005).
  • Kenar, J. A., Knothe, G., and Copes, A. L. Synthesis and characterization of dialkyl carbonates prepared from mid, long chain, and Guerbet alcohols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 81, 285-291 (2004).
  • Knothe, G. and Kenar, J. A. Determination of the fatty acid profile by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 106, 88-96 (2004).
  • Knothe, G. and Dunn, R. O. Dependence of oil stability index of fatty compounds on their structure and concentration and presence of metals. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 80, 1021-1026 (2003).
  • Knothe, G., Matheaus, A. C., and Ryan III, T. W. Cetane numbers of branched and straight chain fatty esters determined in an ignition quality tester. Fuel, 82, 971-975 (2003).
  • Knothe, G. Quantitative analysis of mixtures of fatty compounds by 1H NMR. Lipid Technol., 15, 111-114 (2003).
  • Knothe, G. Structure indices in fatty acid chemistry. How relevant is the iodine value? J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 79, 847 854 (2002).
  • Knothe, G. Synthesis and characterization of long chain 1,2 dioxo compounds. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 115, 85-91 (2002).
  • Knothe, G. Determining the blend level of mixtures of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel by fiber optic NIR spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 78, 1025-1028 (2001).
  • Knothe, G. Characterization of esters of fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids with Guerbet alcohols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 78, 537-540 (2001).
  • Knothe, G. Analytical methods used in the production and fuel quality assessment of biodiesel. Trans. ASAE, 44, 193-200 (2001).
  • Knothe, G., Dunn, R. O., Shockley, M.W., and Bagby, M. O. Synthesis and characterization of some long chain diesters with branched or bulky moieties. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77, 865-871 (2000).
  • Knothe, G. Monitoring a progressing transesterification reaction by fiber optic NIR spectroscopy with correlation to 1H NMR spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77, 489-493 (2000).
  • Knothe, G. and Christie, W. W. Some derivatives of fatty compounds for mass spectral structure determination. In: Recent Developments in the Synthesis of Novel Fatty Acid Derivatives, pp. 227-238 (1999) (edited by G. Knothe, G. and J.T.P. Derksen, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL).
  • Knothe, G. Rapid monitoring of transesterification and assessing biodiesel fuel quality by NIR spectroscopy using a fiber optic probe. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 76, 795-800 (1999).
  • Knothe, G. and Carlson, K. D. Synthesis, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of di Guerbet esters. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75, 1861-1866 (1998).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., and Ryan, III, T. W. Precombustion of fatty acids and esters of biodiesel. A possible explanation for differing cetane numbers. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75, 1007-1013 (1998).
  • Knothe, G. and Nelsen, T.C. Evaluation of the 13C NMR signals of saturated carbons in some long chain compounds. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans., 2, 2019-2026 (1998).
  • Knothe, G., Glass, R. S., Schroeder, T. B., Bagby, M. O., and Weisleder, D. Reaction of isolated double bonds with selenium dioxide/hydrogen peroxide: Formation of novel selenite esters. Synthesis, 57-60 (1997).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., and Ryan, III, T. W. Cetane numbers of fatty compounds: influence of compound structure and of various potential cetane improvers. SAE Techn. Paper Ser., No. 971681. Also in: SAE Publication No. SP 1274, p. 127-132 (1997).
  • Knothe, G. NMR characterization of fatty compounds obtained via selenium dioxide based oxidations. In: New Techniques and Applications for Lipid Analysis, pp. 121-137 (1997) (AOCS Press, Champaign, IL.).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., and Weisleder, D. Evaluation of the olefinic proton signals in the 1H NMR spectra of allylic hydroxy groups in long chain compounds. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 82, 33-37 (1996).
  • Knothe, G. and Bagby, M. O. Assignment of 13C NMR signals in fatty compounds with allylic hydroxy groups. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73, 661-663 (1996).
  • Knothe, G., Lie Ken Jie, M. S. F., Lam, C. C., and Bagby, M. O. Evaluation of the 13C NMR signals of the unsaturated carbons of triacylglycerols. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 77, 187-191 (1995).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., and Weisleder, D. Fatty alcohols through hydroxylation of symmetrical alkenes with selenium dioxide/tert. butylhydroperoxide. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 72, 1021-1026 (1995).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., Weisleder, D., and Peterson, R. E. Allylic hydroxy fatty compounds with Δ5, Δ7, Δ8, and Δ10 unsaturation. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 72, 703-706 (1995).
  • Knothe, G. and Bagby, M. O. 13C NMR spectroscopy of unsaturated long chain compounds: An evaluation of the unsaturated carbon signals as rational functions. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans., 2, 615-620 (1995).
  • Knothe, G., Dunn, R. O., and Bagby, M. O. Surface tension studies on novel allylic mono and dihydroxy fatty compounds. A method to distinguish erythro/threo diastereomers. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 72, 43-47 (1995).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., Weisleder, D., and Peterson, R. E. Allylic mono and di hydroxylation of isolated double bonds with selenium dioxide tert butyl hydroperoxide. NMR characterization of long chain enols, allylic and saturated 1,4 diols, and enones. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1661-1669 (1994).
  • Knothe, G., Weisleder, D., Bagby, M. O., and Peterson, R. E. Hydroxy fatty acids through hydroxylation of oleic acid with selenium dioxide/tert. butylhydroperoxide. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc., 70, 401-404 (1993).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., Ryan, III, T. W., Callahan, T. J., and Wheeler, H. G. Vegetable oils as alternative diesel fuels: Degradation of pure triglycerides during the precombustion phase in a reactor simulating a diesel engine. SAE Techn. Paper Ser. No. 920194. Also in: Alternative Fuels for CI and SI Engines, SAE Publication No. SP 900, p. 37-63 (1992).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., Ryan, III, T. W., Wheeler, H. G., and Callahan, T. J. Semi volatile and volatile compounds formed by degradation of triglycerides in a pressurized reactor. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 69, 341-346 (1992).
  • Knothe, G., Bagby, M. O., Ryan, III, T. W., and Callahan, T. J. Degradation of unsaturated triglycerides injected into a pressurized reactor. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 68, 259-267 (1991).

Updated March 1, 2006