The Alton E Bailey Award Part 1 1959-1980
50 Years of Progress and Growth in the Fats and Oils Industry: The Alton E. Bailey Medalists and their Accomplishments
2009 marked the centennial of the AOCS as well as the 50th anniversary of the Alton E. Bailey award. Thus, it seems appropriate to examine the progress of the AOCS and the fats and oils industry in connection with this award (including those who received the award and their achievements). The Bailey medal is the oldest and one of the most prestigious given by the AOCS and often is for essentially a lifetime of contributions to fats, oils and lipids as well as for service to AOCS. Its purpose is to honor the memory of Alton E. Bailey who was an outstanding technologist, author and leader in the work of AOCS. The many scientists (2 posthumous) who have received this award have individually and collectively contributed much to the fats and oils industry. This article examines their accomplishments in relation to progress in the industry as well as the American Oil Chemists Society. Further information is available on this website here...
The Life and Work of Alton E. Bailey (1907-1953)
Alton E. Bailey was born on May 23, 1907 in Midland located in the Texas Panhandle. His interest in chemistry was inspired by summer jobs working in the oilfields. By the time he reached college age his family had moved to New Mexico to take up ranching. Bailey enrolled at the University of New Mexico in 1924 and graduated with a B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering in 1927. Surprisingly, Bailey was only an average student but was gifted with an ability to write well - which proved to be invaluable later in his career. During college, he became the editor of the school newspaper and authored a lampoon article on the drinking habits of his fellow students. Needless to say this episode did not endear Bailey to the Dean of Students who reprimanded him.
Bailey’s first job after graduation was as a chemist with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad. He began his career in the fats and oils industry with Cudahay Packing in 1929, first in Memphis then in Omaha. Little is known of his career at Cudahay other than that he investigated the rearrangement of lard and deodorization of oils and developed methods to assess the performance of baking shortenings. Late in his career Bailey remarked that aspiring fats and oils chemists should master analytical chemistry before undertaking complex problems, and we can assume that a considerable amount of his work at Cudahay involved quality control and analytical method development. Bailey was not happy at Cudahay - believing he was underpaid and unappreciated. Thus, in 1941, he left them to take a position at the newly-opened Southern Regional Laboratory under the supervision of Dr. Klare Markley (AOCS President, 1944) who headed the oils research unit. It was here that Bailey flourished as a fats and oils chemist.
He combined his vast industrial experience with the resources of the Southern Laboratory library to prepare his classic book “Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products", which he completed in May 1944 and published in 1945. The book contains well over 950 references and was the first of its kind to describe basic oil processing operations in detail. Herbert Longenecker remarked “this volume is an important addition to the literature on fats and oils technology. Throughout the book the author has used graphs and formulas to good advantage in presenting the text. The end result is the book is greatly superior as a reference work to any of the publications in the field. The author has gone a long way indeed toward narrowing the gap between existing but scattered knowledge in an orderly, readable and useful assembly for publication. His long and distinguished association with the field has provided a sound background for the endeavor” (Science, Jan 16, 1946). John Wiley set a price of ten dollars for the book which quickly sold out and was reprinted in 1946.
<p">During the period 1941-1944, Bailey completed his work on dilatometry, which laid the foundation for solid fat index (SFI) determination. In addition, he described the kinetics and mechanism of hydrogenation. Amazingly enough this work was done without the benefit of the modern analytical tools that we take for granted. Bailey’s mechanism for hydrogenation has undergone only slight modification, and it was detailed by Dr. Robert Allen (Bailey Award, 1983) who suggested that hydrogen absorbed on the catalyst surface dissociates into atomic hydrogen can either saturate or isomerize a double bond.
Bailey joined the American Chemical Society in 1929 while at Cudahay, but did not join AOCS until 1936 because of a then-existing 5 years’ experience requirement. Immediately he became active in the society serving on numerous committees, as a member of the governing board, as vice president and as AOCS president in 1951. About the time Bailey’s career was at its zenith his personal life deteriorated. Two marriages were destroyed and Bailey was forced to leave the Southern Laboratory. In 1946, he remarried, started a second family and took a position at the Girdler corporation. Here he began work on the semi-continuous deodorization process and bleaching of edible oils. In addition he published and edited two books including “Cottonseed” (1948) and “Melting and Solidification of Fats” (1950). Although cottonseed has declined as an edible oil, the latter book is an invaluable reference work for researchers and students.
In 1952, Bailey left Girdler to head up research and development at Humko products in Memphis. Also in that year, he was selected for the American Chemical Society (Georgia Section) Herty medal and his picture graced the cover of Chemical and Engineering News (May 12, 1952). His award address gives some insight into his philosophy of research. In addition to the aforementioned mastery of analytical chemistry, he told students to work together as teams and not overspecialize in a given field. Bailey was a modest man who told the audience that he was selected because of the books he had written rather than any particular research accomplishments. At 6 foot 4 inches, Bailey towered over everyone and, coupled with his handsome features, he was the life of the party. Indeed, he and his second wife very much liked to party but, like many such people, Bailey apparently suffered from depression, often staying up late and drinking alone well into the small hours. In May 1953, following a domestic argument, he committed suicide. Thus Bailey’s career came to a tragic end at the age of 46. AOCS members were stunned, and Professor Fred Kummerow wrote to the JAOCS that something should be done to honor Bailey.
Formation of the AOCS North Central Section and the Establishment of the Bailey Award.
The North Central Section had its beginnings on December 1,1953, when Karl Mattil (Swift and Co, 1978 Bailey Award), John P. Harris (J.P. Harris Inc.) and Norbert Zeils (Lever Bros.) met with ten other oil chemists at a luncheon in Chicago. The purpose was to discuss the formation of a local chemists’ group similar to the Northeast Section formed some years earlier. Thus, by bringing together chemists interested in fats/oils, glycerine, soap and edible products, the group could bring science and technology to those who were unable to attend annual AOCS meetings. If sufficient interest was shown, the group intended to apply for incorporation as an AOCS section. The initial meeting was held at the Builders club in Chicago Feb. 4, 1954, and an address was given by Ralph Potts (1960 Bailey Award) and entitled “Chemical plants in Europe’. By 1954 the section had been formed with about 350 members, and on June 4, 1958, the section board discussed plans to establish a medal award. A committee consisting of H.T. Spannuth, R.H. Rogers and E.F. Bickford polled the membership for a name to give the award. The Alton E. Bailey Medal of the North Central Section became official on January 28, 1959. The award would be an attractive medal in a leather case bearing the inscription “Alton E. Bailey Medal of the North Central Section, American Oil Chemists Society”. A plate mounted under the medal was inscribed with the name of the medalist.
Initially, the Awardee was chosen by a committee consisting of the past three section presidents. Today, the Awardee is selected by an AOCS committee. Historically the award was presented at a dinner sponsored by the North Central Section but, in recent years the award is given at the annual AOCS national meeting. The award now consists of a plaque and an honorarium.
The award has been given posthumously on two occasions - to Karl Mattil in 1978 and to Thomas Smouse in 1996. As noted above, Mattil was instrumental in establishing the North Central Section and wrote a considerable portion of the third revision of Bailey’s textbook. Moreover, Mattil’s research led to the introduction of improved shortenings in the 1950s. Smouse came from Anderson Clayton after taking his PhD under Professor Stephen S. Chang (1974 Bailey Award, 1970 AOCS president) at Rutgers University. He was a leader in the work of the Society having served on numerous committee, the governing board, as secretary, vice president and as AOCS president in 1983. Smouse passed away in 1995 after a short illness. His memory is further recognized by an AOCS scholarship given in his name.
Since the Bailey award requires time to develop stature in the field, it is usually given to an older scientist with the average age beyond 60 and very few below 50. The youngest was A.R. Baldwin at 45 and the oldest was David Kritchevsky age 86. The oldest living recipient is Professor Frank Gunstone (born 1923). Several Bailey awardees were unable to attend the award ceremonies due to advanced age including T.P. Hilditch (1965) and E.S. Lutton (1997). However the oldest Bailey awardee at the time of receipt David Kritchevsky (2006) attended the ceremony and gave his lecture from a motorized scooter. As one would expect the vast majority of Bailey awards have gone to scientists with PhD degrees (over 40). About 32% have gone to those in industry, about 43% from academia and 25% from government. Three other awardees had some government service - Swern, Applewhite and Olcott. 12 Awards have gone to scientists from the four regional USDA laboratories, 1 from USDA/North Carolina State and 1 from the Canadian Grain Commission. Stephen S Chang (1974 award) was major professor for 3 Bailey awardees (Krishnamurthy 1992, Smouse 1996 and Min 2007). Three Bailey awards have gone to scientists from the Hormel Institute (Lundberg 1967, Privett 1978, Holman 1972). The Bailey Award is international in scope with awards to amongst others Hilditch (1965), Christie (2004), Gunstone (2005), Sato (2008), Dijkstra (2009) and Daun (2011).
The Awardees, 1959 to 1980
The first Bailey award (1959) went to Virgil Mehlenbacher, chief chemist at Swift and Co. Mehlenbacher had been AOCS president in 1949 and had made numerous contributions to analytical chemistry including editing the updating and revision of the official and tentative AOCS methods. Bailey’s widow and two young sons attended the award ceremony. Mehlenbacher’s award address was published in the AOCS journal and summarizes many of his contributions to analytical chemistry. He also authored a book on the analysis of fats and oils. More information on Mehlenbacher can be found in the series Giants of the Past (Lipid Library history section).
The 1960 award went to Ralph Potts, who many consider to be the father of the oleochemical industry. Potts had developed methods to distil fatty acids, prepare amines and nitriles and held numerous patents relating to these accomplishments. Further information on Potts can also be found in Giants of the Past (Lipid Library).
The 1961 award went to John Cowanwho had directed fats and oils research at the Peoria (USDA) laboratory. His address was entitled ‘20 years of oil research at the Northern Laboratory’. Dr Cowan was a supervisor of the author from 1963 -1973 and served as AOCS president in 1968. He received a number of other awards for his research including the Chevreul medal in 1975 and was author of over 300 publications and US patents.
The Bailey award was not given in 1962. The 1963 recipient was Dr. A R. (Dick) Baldwinwhose leadership in AOCS over the past 65 years has had a most profound impact. Through his energy and vision AOCS developed into an international society. Dr Baldwin served as AOCS president in 1963 and as editor of the Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society for many years. He received both the Normann and Chevreul medals from the German and French Oil Chemist Societies, respectively. The 91 year old Baldwin attended the 100th AOCS meeting in Orlando, Florida; he had met Felix Paquin, the first AOCS president (1909), some years before.
No award was given in 1964. However, in 1965, the Bailey Award went to Professor T.P. Hilditch(University of Liverpool, UK). In 1927 Hilditch and his students began a systematic study of the glyceride structure of numerous fats and oils. By 1940 the work was summarized in the book “The Chemical Constitution of Natural Fats”, which by 1964 had undergone numerous revisions. Hilditch authored other books including a “Concise History of Chemistry” and “The Chemistry of Fats, Oils and Waxes. Hilditch, proposed the even theory of glyceride structure, which suggests that fatty acids tend to be distributed as widely as possible across the glycerol backbone. Under this theory, simple triglycerides are not permitted and a fatty acid comprising less than 33% of the total cannot occur more than once in a molecule and must exceed 66% in order to appear twice. Although the theory worked well for highly saturated fats and the fractional crystallization techniques employed for their analysis, the work of H.J. Dutton (1968 Bailey Award) showed that the even theory did not account for the glyceride structures of highly unsaturated fats, which more closely match a restricted random pattern. Originally, the 1965 award was to be given to Hilditch at a symposium at the annual AOCS meeting in Houston, Texas. However, because of failing health, he was unable to attend and the award was accepted by Dr. Frank Gunstone (2005 Bailey Award) on his behalf.
The 1966 award went to Daniel Swernwho began his career at the Eastern USDA laboratory and then took up a position at Temple University. One of his students, Tom Foglia, would become a later Bailey award winner (1996). Swern is best known for his work on the epoxidation of fatty acids and organic peroxides. He also was the editor of the 3rd and 4th editions of “Baileys Industrial Oil and Fat Products”, the latter of which was expanded from one to two volumes under his editorship with a third added in 1985 after his death. Swern was also the recipient of the AOCS award in Lipid Chemistry.
Walter Lundbergwas the 1967 recipient and spent most of his career at the Hormel Institute (Austin, Minnesota), where he was Resident Director from its foundation in 1944 to 1949, before he became executive Director until his retirement in 1974. Amongst his other honours were the Chevreul and Normann Medals from the French and German Oil Chemists, respectively. Lundberg (who served as AOCS president in 1963) is well known for his work on the autoxidation of fats and oils. He was the recipient of the AOCS award in Lipid Chemistry, and amongst his other honours were the Chevreul and Normann Medals from the French and German Oil Chemists’ Societies, respectively. Lundberg was the editor of the two volume set ‘Autoxidation and Antioxidants” (John Wiley and Sons, 1962.)
Herbert J. Duttonreceived the 1968 award. He led research on the flavor stability of soybean oil and conducted studies on the glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. Dutton also contributed much to our knowledge of hydrogenation. His approach to research involved the use of new techniques to study old problems. For example, he recognized that computers would be useful in the study of hydrogenation kinetics and that tandem analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry and gas chromatography would be useful in lipid research. Dutton received numerous other awards for his research including the AOCS Award in Lipid Chemistry (1969), the Hilditch and Lewkowitsch lectures (Society of the Chemical Industry, UK), and he was the initial recipient of the AOCS analytical award (1993), which was renamed in his honor. He often remarked that his most significant accomplishment was supervising three AOCS Presidents including Tim Mounts (1988 Bailey Award, 1988 AOCS president), Edward Emken (1994 Bailey Award, 1999 AOCS President) and Karl Zilch (1982 AOCS President, Distinguished Fellow 1998), who all worked in Dutton’s laboratory. His career is described in greater detail here..
The 1969 Award went to Harold Olcottbest remembered for his work on lipid oxidation and the stabilization of fats and oils with antioxidants. Olcott published a paper in the late 1950s entitled “A weighing method to determine the stability of oils“, which is still quite useful today, particularly when small samples are involved.
Herbert Carter, the 1970 recipient, was honored for his research on the biochemistry of lipids. In particular, he was an early pioneer in the fields of sphingolipids and glycolipids. For example, he determined the structure of sphingosine from which he coined the term “sphingolipide” to encompass the family of lipids that includes cerebrosides, sphingomyelins and gangliosides. Further research led to the structures of dihydrosphingosine and cerebrosides and the plant analogue phytosphingosine. He was the first identify the galactosylglycerides as a new class of plant glycolipids. In 1943 he received the Eli Lilly award for the structure and synthesis of sphingosine. Carter is also known for his isolation and structural determination of a number of antibiotics. Another contribution came from the field of stereochemistry in which he had a lifelong interest. Carter published a paper in which he described the “meso” carbon atom and the concept of prochirality. Although controversial at the time, others verified his conclusions. He received numerous honors and awards including election to The National Academy of Sciences and the AOCS Award In Lipid Chemistry. Further information on Carter’s career may be found in an article ‘Introduction to the series on sphingolipids in honor of Professor Carter (J. Lipid Res. 49 (2008) 907-908).
James Mead(the 1971 recipient) spent most of his career at the UCLA School of Medicine. He is best remembered for his work on the essential fatty acids and their transformation in the brain. Mead characterized the unusual trienoic fatty acid that accumulated in essential fatty acid deficiency as cis-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid or 20:3(n-9). This acid is often given the trivial name “Mead Acid” after its discoverer. Of the many awards he received, he was most proud of the Research Center Award of the NIH and the AOCS Award in Lipid Chemistry.
Ralph Holman(the 1972 recipient) had a long and distinguished career during which he made many significant discoveries in lipid chemistry and nutrition. Holman published extensively with a total of about 425 publications. He began his career under the supervision of George Burr who, in 1929, first discovered that linoleic acid is essential for nutrition. In the early 1960s Holman carried out a series of seminal experiments on the relationships between the families of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. He further demonstrated the competitive nature of the metabolism of these acids and coined the term omega-3 acids. He received many honours throughout his career, including the AOCS Award in Lipid Chemistry.
Chester Gooding (the 1973 recipient) was an accomplished chemist who made numerous contributions in the areas of oil processing and edible oil product formulation. Gooding spent most of his career at Corn Products International and, as such, most of his contributions are found in the patent literature. These include confectionary fats, interesterified margarine oils , utilization of cottonseed stearines in foods, partial hydrogenation and winterization of soybean oil for salad oil, and methods for production of high stability oils
Stephen S. Chang (the 1974 recipient) had a long career in industry and academia. After conducting fats and oil research at Swift and A.E. Staley, Chang took a position at Rutgers University where he eventually became Chair of the Food Science department. Chang had a long-standing interest in flavor chemistry, oxidation and was one of the first to isolate flavor components and identify them by gas chromatography. Chang published extensively on frying fats and natural antioxidants. He served as AOCS president in 1970 and received numerous honors and awards from both the AOCS and IFT. These include the highest awards given by AOCS and the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) (AOCS Lipid Chemistry Award, IFT Nicholas Appert award). A detailed account of his career can be found on the Lipid Library website (Giants of the Past ).
Walter M. Cochran (1975 recipient), spent his entire career in industry and retired as technical director of Durkee Famous Foods. Prior to that he was manager of edible oils research at Swift and Bunge Foods. Cochran served as a naval intelligence officer in the Aleutian Islands during the Second World War. Cochran made numerous practical contributions to fats and oils including development of emulsifiers, shortenings for bakery, confections, imitation dairy products and prepared mixes. Cochran held a number of US patents in these areas.
Raymond Reiser (1976 recipient) with the exception of army service in World War Two, spent most of his career at Texas A & M University as a biochemist from 1940 to 1976. Prior to his arrival at A & M, his focus was on applied research. Reiser began to obtain grants for basic research which, in turn, attracted like-minded professors. Soon his research brought international recognition. Reiser was well known for his work on cholesterol and was frequently consulted on dietary matters involving oils, eggs and meat. Reiser took the position that genetics and not diet was the determining factor in cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease. In the 1980s, Reiser pointed out that cholesterol accumulation is a disease much like diabetes. He remained at Texas A & M as an emeritus professor after retirement in 1976 and continued research as late as 1987. His last publication appeared in 1990.
Leo Goldblatt (1977 recipient) spent his entire career as a research chemist with the federal government. From 1940 to 1952, He conducted research at the Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry, Naval Stores division. Here his work focused on turpentine, pinenes, retene, turpentine derivatives, high-pressure lubricants, fatty acids, resins and insecticides. In 1952, Goldblatt began his main research on lipids at the Southern Regional Laboratory in New Orleans. Since cottonseed is a major southern crop his research focused on this. Goldblatt was a pioneer in development of analytical methods for aflatoxins in grains and directed a diverse program on cottonseed oil, cocoa butter substitutes as well as the reaction chemistry of fatty acids and proteins .
Orville Privett spent the majority of his career at the University of Minnesota and the Hormel Institute. The early part of his career focused on the kinetics and mechanism of hydroperoxide decomposition, polymerization of fatty acids, rancidity and preservation of lipid-based foods. As his career developed, he expanded into the biochemistry of fatty acids and their dietary effects. Like many lipid chemists of his era, development of analytical methods and their applications to lipid problems attracted his attention. Thin layer and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were employed with great success and Privett published a seminal paper on the composition of soybean lecithin. He may have been the first to observe that many heated oils are toxic and this led to the elegant work done by Earl Crampton and colleagues. By the time he received the Bailey Award, Privett had authored 140 publications; Ralph Holman (who introduced him at the ceremony) said ” Dr. Privett has fantastic technique; it’s a joy to watch him in the lab”.
Karl Mattil also received the Award in 1978 but posthumously. He made outstanding contributions to the area and was instrumental in founding the North Central AOCS Section. His research on edible oils at Swift included rearrangement of lard for the production of improved shortenings. He held a dozen patents on the technology and he along with Frank Norris (1980 Bailey Award) brought ‘Swiftning’ to the marketplace. Mattil contributed a number of chapters (6) to the 3rd edition of Baileys Industrial Oil and Fat products (1964). He spent the remainder of his career at Texas A & M University where he conducted research on proteins and oilseed extraction.
Rueben Feuge (1979 recipient) spent his entire career at the Southern Regional laboratory and was a colleague of Alton Bailey from 1941-1944. He pointed out that Bailey was a co-author on a number of his publications. Feuge was one of the few Bailey awardees without a Ph.D. Nonetheless, he published extensively in the areas of fat modification via glycerolysis and interesterification and held a number of US Patents pertaining to oilseed processing.
Frank Norris (1980 recipient) began his career at General Mills in 1941, and 3 years later joined Swift and Company. At the time meat-based shortenings were receiving increased competition from vegetable oil products. While lard performed well in some baking applications, its poor cake volume was a decided disadvantage. Thus the industry turned to interesterification in the hope of improving the shortening properties of lard. At least 3 meat packers began research including Armour, Proctor and Gamble, and Swift and Co. By the early 1950s improved lard shortenings were introduced into the market place. Among these was ”Swiftning” for which Frank Norris and Karl Mattil did the basic research leading to its development. Their findings are documented in a number of technical publications and US Patents. In 1946, Norris published a classic paper where he showed that, upon esterification, vegetable oils possess higher melting points while animal fats remain unchanged. He reasoned that, if melting points could not be improved by rearrangement, perhaps the crystal habit could be altered by changing a beta crystal form into the preferred beta prime form. The rearranged products showed marked improvement in cake baking applications. In addition to his many contributions in lipid science, Norris was an accomplished author. ”Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products“ had been revised by Bailey in 1951. By the early 1960s enough progress had been made to warrant a 3rd revision. Daniel Swern (1966 Bailey Award) was selected to edit the 3rd revision. The book appeared in 1964 and consists of 23 chapters the bulk of which were contributed by Swern (9), Mattil (7) and Norris (3), as well as A.J. Stirton, (Eastern Regional Laboratory) (4).
Some Final Thoughts, Further Reading and Acknowledgements
Your author has polled a number of Bailey awardees for their reactions when notified of their selection. All were thrilled at when the news came because of Bailey’s stature as a fats and oils scientist, and the list of previous recipients also add to the satisfaction of getting the award. For some, the Bailey Award was the first validation of their research and/or service to the Society. One recipient said he was on “ a cloud for days afterwards”. Some of the older recipients had received other awards but still felt honored to be selected. Some were disappointed that primarily North Americans received the award, a deficiency that has been corrected in recent years.
Since 2000, scientists from Scotland, Japan, France, China, Belgium and Canada have been selected, so the Bailey Award is international in scope. Many recipients were not only strong scientists but had considerable service to AOCS and the profession, and many received other awards including the AOCS Supelco-Nicholas Pelick, Chang and Dutton awards. Some recipients were also honored by International Societies including EFL, SCI.DGF and the French Oil Chemists' Society. In the early years the Bailey Award dinner and ceremony was very well attended, primarily because The North Central Section attracted many of the Chicago-based fats and oils companies. Over the past decade, attendance slowly declined such that the Award is now presented at the annual AOCS congress. Initially the award was sponsored by a number of Chicago based companies. Today, thanks to the generosity of Archer Daniels Midland and Kraft Foods, the honorarium and plaque are maintained at historic levels of funding. Although the Bailey Award format has changed over the years, Bailey’s memory lives on. The Bailey Award is open to AOCS Members in good standing who have made important discoveries in fats, oils and lipids and/or exemplary leadership to AOCS and the profession. Nomination documents should include a letter stating the nominees accomplishments, a curriculum vitae, a list of publications and support letters from peers (3 - 5). Award documents should be sent to AOCS by November 1.(attention: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Much of the information reported here can be found in the Journal of The American Oil Chemists Society from the years 1953-1989 and INFORM 1990-2013. A number of awardees were kind enough to provide C.V.s/publication lists. Bailey’s widow donated his papers to the University of Memphis where they form a part of the Special Collections Library. The Curator, Chris Ratliff, kindly reproduced many of Bailey’s relevant papers and his assistance is gratefully acknowledged.
Other sources include:
- This Website: History section
- Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products 5th Edition, "A tribute to Alton E Bailey" by Robert Hastert. Also "Bailey’s legacy in decades of fats and oils research", by Tim Mounts, ibid.
- Chemical and Engineering News: May 12, 1952. Bailey receives ACS Herty Medal and his acceptance remarks to young scientists.
- Past President Files, American Oil Chemists Society Archives. A.E. Bailey, 1951.
- WWW.Ancestry.com Genealogical Data, Death certificate A.E. Bailey.
- Book review: ”Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products”, Wiley Interscience, 1945, by H.E. Longenecker, Science Jan 16,1946 p. 210.
The concept for this article was inspired by Dr. Alina Szczesinak, author of an interesting and accomplished history of the Nicholas Appert Award (Food Technology, 9 (1992) 144-161).