Part 5. Trienoic Fatty Acids
As cautioned in the Introduction to these documents, the mass spectra of methyl esters obtained under electron-impact ionization afford limited information only concerning the double bond positions in fatty acids. However, the molecular weight is usually obtainable, and this is an important piece of information. If chromatographic retention data are added to this, it is often possible to be reasonably sure of the identity of a fatty acid. In contrast to the situation with monoenes and dienes, there are a few key ions that help to identify the common polyenoic fatty acids with methylene-interrupted ('homo-allylic') unsaturation, especially those of the (n-6) and (n-3) families, though these must be interpreted with caution. Some other polyunsaturated fatty acids give distinctive fingerprint spectra, although the mechanisms of fragmentation may not always be properly understood. For example, our Archive illustrates mass spectra of ten natural 18:3 isomers (not counting Z/E isomers), all of which appear to be characteristic. A few of the spectra illustrated below may have been published elsewhere (references cited if known), but some are unique to this website.
With methylene-interrupted trienes, as opposed to tetraenes to hexaenes, there is usually a distinctive molecular ion together with a small ion at [M−31/32]+ for loss of the elements of a methoxyl group (plus a hydrogen atom). The McLafferty ion (m/z = 74) is always small. In the lower molecular weight region, hydrocarbon ions of general formula [CnH2n-5]+ tend to dominate the spectrum with the ion at m/z = 79 as the base peak.
There are two relatively common C18 trienoic acids and their mass spectra are illustrated below, starting with methyl 6,9,12-octadecatrienoate (γ-linolenate or 18:3(n-6)) (Holman and Rahm, 1971)-
- and of methyl 9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (α-linolenate or 18:3(n-3)) (Hallgren et al., 1959).
Both spectra are rather similar, but there are features that make them something more than simply ‘fingerprints’ for identification purposes. For example, a peak at m/z = 150 is characteristic for methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids with an n-6 terminal moiety, while one at m/z = 108 defines an n-3 terminal group (Holman and Rahm, 1971; Brauner et al.,1982; Fellenberg et al., 1987). For the minor (n-9) and (n-4) families the relevant ions are at m/z = 192 and 122, respectively. They are formed by cleavage in the positions shown.
My impression is that each of these ions occurs with reasonable consistency in the spectra of fatty acid methyl esters from these biochemical families, although they are not necessarily unique to such acids. It should be noted that these ions, which are sometimes termed the ‘omega’ ions, are relevant only for fatty acids with three or more double bonds, not for dienes.
In addition, there are small ions formed by a similar cleavage at the carboxyl end of the molecule giving a fragment containing the first two double bonds and the second methylene group (minus a proton) that could be termed the 'alpha' ion, as illustrated. Thus, in the mass spectrum of methyl 6,9,12-octadecatrienoate, this ion is at m/z = 194, and it appears to be present in the spectra of all conventional polyenoic acids to which we have access with the first double bond in position 6. The corresponding ion in the spectrum of methyl 9,12,15-octadecatrienoate is at m/z = 236. This ion was first noted by Holman and Rahm (1971), but was studied more systematically via chemical ionization methods in a paper by others that appears to have been largely overlooked (Brauner et al., 1982).
Analogous ions are seen in spectra of methyl esters of most methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids (three or more double bonds) as listed in Table 1. The alpha ions are not always as easily distinguished as the omega ions, but they do appear always to be present other than in some of the fatty acids of the lesser-known (n-1) family) (author, unpublished observation).
For example with the biologically important C20 analogues, such as 8,11,14-eicosatrienate (20:3(n-6)) and the mass spectrum of the methyl ester, the omega ion at m/z = 150 is again prominent together with the alpha ion for a Δ8,11 double bond system at m/z = 222 -
The mass spectrum of the methyl ester of 16:3(n-6) is an exception in that it lacks the ion at m/z = 150, but has a distinctive if uncharacterized ion at m/z = 147 (see the Archive pages).
In the mass spectrum of methyl 11,14,17-eicosatrienoate (20:3(n-3)), the ion at m/z = 108 is similarly distinctive and the alpha ion for a Δ11,14 fatty acid at m/z = 264 is small but clear.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-9 family are less common in nature, but they do have biological relevance, especially in essential fatty acid deficiency in animals. Below is the mass spectrum of the important isomer methyl 5,8,11-eicosatrienoate (Mead's acid or 20:3(n-9)) -
In this instance, the distinctive omega ion is that at m/z = 192, which is formed by an analogous type of cleavage to the key ions for the n-6 and n-3 families, while the alpha Δ5,8 ion is at m/z = 180.
With the minor (n-4) family of fatty acids from fish oils, the diagnostic omega ion is at m/z = 122, as in the spectrum of methyl 8,11,14-octadecatrienoate, while the alpha Δ8,11 ion is at m/z = 222 -
Trienes of the (n-1) family of fatty acids have yet to be found in nature, but the spectrum of methyl 11,14,17-octadecatrienoate (18:3(n-1)) is illustrated next to complete this section (Sayanova et al., 2006).
The omega ion is expected to be at m/z = 80, but this is present in the spectra of all methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids so is no longer characteristic. The alpha ion would be expected at m/z = 264, but is not present. This spectrum could be said to be distinct from the others only in the sense that there appears to be nothing distinctive.
We also have spectra of the methyl esters of 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoate (16:3(n-3)), 16:3(n-1), 20:3(n-6), 20:3(n-3) and 22:3(n-6) in the Archive section (without interpretation).
The rules developed for methylene-interrupted trienes do not apply when there is more than one methylene group between the double bonds. For example, 5,9,12-octadecatrienoate is a common constituent of conifer lipids and its methyl ester has the spectrum shown next (Dobson and Christie, 2002) -
It has the ion at m/z = 150 for a (n-6) double bond system, but also the ions at m/z = 141, 109 and [M-49]+ (m/z = 243) characteristic of 5,9-dienes (see our web page on methyl esters of dienoic acids.
We also have mass spectra for 5,11,14-20:3, 7,11,14-20:3 (from conifers), and 5,9,21-28:3, 5,9,22-29:3 and 5,9,23-30:3 (from sponges). Some of these fatty acids have the characteristic ions for a 5,9-double bond system also, and the spectrum of the last of them, methyl 5,9,23-triacontatrienoate, is illustrated.
Thus, the key ions are at m/z = 141 and for [M-49]+ (m/z = 411). Of course, it is unlikely that there are any diagnostic ions for the double bond in position 23.
3,9,12-Octadecatrienoic acid (usually with the first double bond of the trans-configuration, but here cis-) is occasionally found in seed oils from the Chrysanthemum and related families. The methyl ester has the spectrum (Dobson and Christie, 2002) -
It is very different from the spectra of other C18 trienes, and the ion at m/z = 218 is possibly formed from a fragmentation as illustrated, i.e. after loss of the McLafferty ion.
Trienoic fatty acids in which only two of the double bonds are in conjugation are rare in nature, and the best known is cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid. This is formed as an intermediate in the biohydrogenation of α-linolenic acid by miroorganisms in the rumen, and is a minor component of meat and dairy products from ruminant animals, such as sheep and cows. The mass spectrum of its methyl ester is -
In this instance, the spectrum is quite informative. The ion at m/z = 223 represents a fragmentation at the centre of the bis-methylene-interrupted system containing the carboxyl group (the other expected ion at m/z = 69 is present but hidden among the low-mass hydrocarbon ions). The ion at m/z = 191 represents loss of a methoxyl group from the ion at m/z = 223, while that at m/z = 173 represents a further fragmentation in which the elements of water are lost. The ions at m/z = 149 and 163 are formed from the hydrocarbon tail of the molecule involving cleavages beta and gamma, respectively, to the first double bond.
Conjugated trienes are important constituents of certain seed oils of commerce. The mass spectrum of the methyl ester of the conjugated triene, α-eleostearate, or methyl 9-cis,11-trans,13-trans-octadecatrienoate is -
There are two main distinctive features, a particularly high molecular ion, and a tropylium rearrangement ion at m/z = 91 (discussed in our web document on mass spectrometry of tetraenes, etc). Both of these ions are characteristic of highly conjugated double bond systems. There are no ions indicative of double bond positions. Other conjugated trienes have mass spectra that are very similar to this.
Mass spectra of the MTAD adducts of the methyl esters of the conjugated triene, punicic acid, are described in another document (see the section on Mass spectra of methyl esters of fatty acids - further derivatization).
We have spectra of many more methyl esters of trienoic fatty acids on file, and they can be accessed (but without interpretation) from our Archive page.
- Brauner, A., Budzikiewicz, H. and Boland, W. Studies in chemical ionization mass spectrometry. 5. Localization of homoconjugated triene and tetraene units in aliphatic compounds. Org. Mass Spectrom., 17, 161-164 (1982) (DOI: 10.1002/oms.1210170403).
- Dobson, G. and Christie, W.W. Mass spectrometry of fatty acid derivatives. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 104, 36-43 (2002) (DOI: 10.1002/1438-9312(200201)104:13.0.CO;2-W).
- Fellenberg, A.J., Johnson, D.W., Poulos, A. and Sharp, P. Simple mass spectrometric differentiation of the n-3, n-6 and n-9 series of methylene interrupted polyenoic acids. Biomed. Environ. Mass Spectrom., 14, 127-130 (1987) (DOI: 10.1002/bms.1200140306).
- Hallgren, B., Ryhage, R. and Stenhagen, E. The mass spectra of methyl oleate, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate. Acta Chem. Scand., 13, 845-847 (1959) (DOI: 10.3891/acta.chem.scand.13-0845).
- Holman, R.T. and Rahm, J.J. Analysis and characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prog. Chem. Fats Other Lipids, 9, 15-90 (1971) (DOI: 10.1016/0079-6832(71)90024-3).
- Sayanova, O., Haslam, R., Guschina, I., Lloyd, D., Christie, W.W., Harwood, J.L. and Napier, J.A. A bifunctional Δ12,Δ15-desaturase from Acanthamoeba castellanii directs the synthesis of highly unusual n-1 series unsaturated fatty acids. J. Biol. Chem., 281, 36533-36541 (2006) (DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M605158200).
Updated May 1, 2013