Literature Survey

Electrospray-Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Lipids - up to the year 2004

Electrospray-ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry is now in all probability the most popular technique for non-volatile lipids, such as triacylglycerols, phospholipids and glycolipids. Because of the popularity of the technique we have had to split the survey into parts - the second from 2005 to 2009, and the third from 2010 onwards. It can give a great deal of invaluable information, including the nature of any polar head group, molecular species composition and regiospecific distributions of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone.

The following references were collected as part of our regular literature reviews for our own research purposes. We cannot claim to have covered the subject exhaustively, but we have done our best. References are listed alphabetically by the first author of a paper, but not necessarily chronologically by that author. New references may be added at irregular intervals - check the bottom of the page for when it was last updated.

  • Abeytunga,D.T.U., Glick,J.J., Gibson,N.J., Oland,L.A., Somogyi,A., Wysocki,V.H. and Polt,R. Presence of unsaturated sphingomyelins and changes in their composition during the life cycle of the moth Manduca sexta. J. Lipid Res., 45, 1221-1231 (2004).
  • Adachi,J., Matsushita,S., Yoshioka,N., Funae,R., Fujita,T., Higuchi,S. and Ueno,Y. Plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide as a new marker of oxidative stress in alcoholic patients. J. Lipid Res., 45, 967-971 (2004).
  • Adachi,J., Yoshioka,N., Funae,R., Nagasaki,Y., Naito,T. and Ueno,Y. Phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide levels in human plasma are lower than previously reported. Lipids, 39, 891-896 (2004).
  • Adachi,J., Yoshioka,N., Funae,R., Nushida,H., Asano,M. and Ueno,Y. Determination of phosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxides using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B, 806, 41-46 (2004).
  • Adams,J. Charge-remote fragmentations: analytical applications and fundamental studies. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 9, 141-186 (1990).
  • Adams,J. and Ann,Q.H. Structure determination of sphingolipids by mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 12, 51-85 (1993).
  • Agren,J.J. and Kuksis,A. Analysis of diastereomeric DAG naphthylethylurethanes by normal-phase HPLC with on-line electrospray MS. Lipids, 37, 613-619 (2002).
  • Baker,D.L., Desiderio,D.M., Miller,D.D., Tolley,B. and Tigyi,G.J. Direct quantitative analysis of lysophosphatidic acid molecular species by stable isotope dilution electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal. Biochem., 292, 287-295 (2001).
  • Balazy,M. Eicosanomics: targeted lipidomics of eicosanoids in biological systems. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediators, 73, 173-180 (2004).
  • Beausoleil,H.E., Lepine,F. and Dubreuil,J.D. LC-MS analysis of pig intestine sulfatides: Interaction with Escherichia coli STb enterotoxin and characterization of molecular species present. FEMS Microbiol. Letts, 209, 183-188 (2002).
  • Beckedorf,A.I., Schaffer,C., Messner,P. and Peter-Katalinic,J. Mapping and sequencing of cardiolipins from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a by positive and negative ion nanoESI-QTOF-MS and MS/MS. J. Mass Spectrom., 37, 1086-1094 (2002).
  • Bennion,B., Park,C., Fuller,M., Lindsey,R., Momany,M., Jennemann,R. and Levery,S.B. Glycosphingolipids of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans: characterization of GIPCs with oligo-alpha-mannose-type glycans. J. Lipid Res., 44, 2073-2088 (2003).
  • Bergqvist,M. and Kuksis,A. Liquid chromatography with on-line electrospray mass spectrometry of oxidized diphosphatidylglycerol. In: 'New Techniques and Applications in Lipid Analysis', pp. 81-99 (edited by R.E. McDonald and M.M. Mossoba, AOCS Press, Champaign) (1997).
  • Berrie,C.P., Dragani,L.K., van der Kaay,J., Iurisci,C., Brancaccio,A., Rotilio,D. and Corda,D. Maintenance of PtdIns45P(2) pools under limiting inositol conditions, as assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PtdIns45P(2) mass evaluation in Ras-transformed cells. Eur. J. Cancer, 38, 2463-2475 (2002).
  • Berry,K.A.Z. and Murphy,R.C. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of glycerophosphoethanolamine plasmalogen phospholipids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 15, 1499-1508 (2004).
  • Black,G.E., Snyder,A.P. and Heroux,K.S. Chemotaxonomic differentiation between the Bacillus cereus group and Bacillus subtilis by phospholipid extracts analyzed with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J. Microb. Methods, 28, 187-199 (1997).
  • Blom,T.S., Koivusalo,M., Kuismanen,E., Kostiainen,R., Somerharju,P. and Ikonen,E. Mass spectrometric analysis reveals an increase in plasma membrane polyunsaturated phospholipid species upon cellular cholesterol loading. Biochemistry, 40, 14635-14644 (2001).
  • Bohnstedt,K.C., Karlberg,B., Wahlund,L.O., Jonhagen,M.E., Basun,H. and Schmidt,S. Determination of isoprostanes in urine samples from Alzheimer patients using porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B, 796, 11-19 (2003).
  • Bolcato,C.A., Frye,R.F., Zemaitis,M.A. and Poloyac,S.M. Determination of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in microsomal incubates using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). J. Chromatogr. B, 794, 363-372 (2003).
  • Bolgar,M.S., Yang,C.Y. and Gaskell,S.J. First direct evidence for lipid/protein conjugation in oxidized human low-density-lipoprotein. J. Biol. Chem., 271, 27999-28001 (1996).
  • Borrett,V.T., Mathews,R.J., Duncan,A. and Traeger,J.C. Negative ion electrospray mass spectra of bacterial phospholipids following inactivation treatments. Eur. J. Mass Spectrom., 3, 251-255 (1997).
  • Boue,S.M. and Cole,R.B. Confirmation of the structure of lipid A from Enterobacter agglomerans by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J. Mass Spectrom., 35, 361-368 (2000).
  • Boukhchina,S., Sebai,K., Cherif,A., Kallel,H. and Mayer,P.M. Identification of glycerophospholipids in rapeseed, olive, almond, and sunflower oils by LC-MS and LC-MS-MS. Canad. J. Chem., 82, 1210-1215 (2004).
  • Boumann,H.A., Chin,P.T.K., Heck,A.J.R., de Kruijff,B. and de Kroon,A.I.P.M. The yeast phospholipid N-methyltransferases catalyzing the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine preferentially convert Di-C16 : 1 Substrates both in vivo and in vitro. J. Biol. Chem., 279, 40314-40319 (2004).
  • Boumann,H.A., Damen,M.J.A., Versluis,C., Heck,A.J.R., de Kruijff,B. and de Kroon,A.I.P.M. The two biosynthetic routes leading to phosphatidylcholine in yeast produce different sets of molecular species. Evidence for lipid remodeling. Biochemistry, 42, 3054-3059 (2003).
  • Breitling-Utzmann,C.M., Unger,A., Friedl,D.A. and Lederer,M.O. Identification and quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine-derived glucosylamines and aminoketoses from human erythrocytes -Influence of glycation products on lipid peroxidation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 391, 245-254 (2001).
  • Briand,G., Fontaine,M., Schubert,R., Ricart,G., Degand,P. and Vamecq,J. Direct analysis by electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS of standard and urinary acylcarnitines. Comparison with fast atom bombardment and GC CI MS. J. Mass Spectrom., 30, 1731-1741 (1995).
  • Brooks,S., Clark,G.T., Wright,S.M., Trueman,R.J., Postle,A.D., Cossins,A.R. and Maclean,N.M. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of lipid restructuring in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during cold acclimation. J. Exp. Biol., 205, 3989-3997 (2002).
  • Brouwers,J.F.H.M., Vernooij,E.A.A.M., Tielens,A.G.M. and van Golde,L.M.G. Rapid separation and identification of phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species. J. Lipid Res., 40, 164-169 (1999).
  • Brugger,B., Erben,G., Sandhoff,R., Wieland,F.T. and Lehmann,W.D. Quantitative analysis of biological membrane lipids at the low picomole level by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 2339-2344 (1997).
  • Burdge,G.C. and Postle,A.D. Selective changes to phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species in the developing fetal guinea pig liver and plasma. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 44, 571-582 (2004).
  • Bylund,J., Ericsson,J. and Oliw,E.H. Analysis of cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic and linoleic acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with ion trap MS. Anal. Biochem., 265, 55-68 (1998).
  • Byrdwell,W.C. Dual parallel mass spectrometers for analysis of sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid and plasmalogen molecular species. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 12, 256-272 (1998).
  • Byrdwell,W.C. Dual parallel liquid chromatography/dual mass spectrometry (LC2/MS2) of bovine brain total lipid extract. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 26, 3147-3181 (2003).
  • Byrdwell,W.C. and Borchman,D. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization of sphingomyelin and dihydrosphingomyelin of human lens membranes. Ophthalmic Res., 29, 191-206 (1997).
  • Byrdwell,W.C. and Neff,W.E. Dual parallel electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS), MS/MS and MS/MS/MS for the analysis of triacylglycerols and triacylglycerol oxidation products. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 16, 300-319 (2002).
  • Byrdwell,W.C. and Neff,W.E. Electrospray ionization MS of high MW TAG oligomers. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 81, 13-26 (2004).
  • Cabrera,G.M., Murga,M.L.F., de Valdez,G.F. and Seldes,A.M. Direct analysis by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of mixtures of phosphatidyldiacylglycerols from Lactobacillus. J. Mass Spectrom., 35, 1452-1459 (2000).
  • Camera,E., Picardo,M., Presutti,C., Catarcini,P. and Fanali,S. Separation and characterisation of sphingoceramides by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci., 27, 971-976 (2004).
  • Careri,M., Dieci,M., Mangia,A., Manini,P. and Raffaelli,A. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of phospholipids in soybean products using particle-beam and ionspray interfaces. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 10, 707-714 (1996).
  • Careri,M., Mangia,A. and Musci,M. Overview of the applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry interfacing systems in food analysis: naturally occurring substances in food. J. Chromatogr. A, 794, 263-297 (1998).
  • Carpenter,K.H. and Wiley,V. Application of tandem mass spectrometry to biochemical genetics and newborn screening. Clin. Chim. Acta, 322, 1-10 (2002).
  • Chace,D.H., DiPerna,J.C., Mitchell,B.L., Sgroi,B., Hofman,L.F. and Naylor,E.W. Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of acylcarnitines in dried postmortem blood specimens collected at autopsy from infants with unexplained cause of death. Clin. Chem., 47, 1166-1182 (2001).
  • Chai,W.G., Leteux,C., Lawson,A.M. and Stoll,M.S. On-line overpressure thin-layer chromatographic separation and electrospray mass spectrometric detection of glycolipids. Anal. Chem., 75, 118-125 (2003).
  • Chen,S. Tandem mass spectrometric approach for determining structure of molecular species of aminophospholipids. Lipids, 32, 85-100 (1997).
  • Chen,T.S., Yoder,J.D. and Hruby,D.E. Mass spectrometry analysis of synthetically myristoylated peptides. Eur. J. Mass Spectrom., 10, 501-508 (2004).
  • Cheng,C.F. and Gross,M.L. Applications and mechanisms of charge-remote fragmentation. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 19, 398-420 (2000).
  • Cheng,C.F., Gross,M.L. and Pittenauer,E. Complete structural elucidation of triacylglycerols by tandem sector mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 70, 4417-4426 (1998).
  • Cheng,C.F., Pittenauer,E and Gross,M.L. Charge-remote fragmentations are energy-dependent processes. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 9, 840-844 (1998).
  • Cheng,H., Xu,J., McKeel,D.W. and Han,X. Specificity and potential mechanism of sulfatide deficiency in Alzheimer's disease: an electrospray ionization mass spectrometric study. Cell. Mol. Biol. 49, 809-818 (2003).
  • Chuang,S.S., Helvig,C., Taimi,M., Ramshaw,H.A., Collop,A.H., Amad,M., White,J.A., Petkovich,M., Jones,G. and Korczak,B. CYP2U1, a novel human thymus- and brain-specific cytochrome P450, catalyzes omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of fatty acids. J. Biol. Chem., 279, 6305-6314 (2004).
  • Colsch,B., Afonso,C., Popa,L., Portoukalian,J., Fournier,F., Tabet,J.C. and Baumann,N. Characterization of the ceramide moieties of sphingoglycolipids from mouse brain by ESI-MS/MS: identification of ceramides containing sphingadienine. J. Lipid Res., 45, 281-286 (2004).
  • Corcelli,A., Lattanzio,V.M.T., Mascolo,G., Babudri,F., Oren,A. and Kates,M. Novel sulfonolipid in the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber. Appl. Environm. Microbiol., 70, 6678-6685 (2004).
  • Corsaro,M.M., Dal Piaz,F., Lanzetta,R. and Parrilli,M. Lipid A structure of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125: use of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of fatty acid distribution. J. Mass Spectrom., 37, 481-488 (2002).
  • Cremesti,A.E. and Fischl,A.S. Current methods for the identification and quantitation of ceramides: an overview. Lipids, 35, 937-945 (2000).
  • d'Ippolito,G., Tucci,S., Cutignano,A., Romano, Cimino, Miralto,A. and Fontana,A. The role of complex lipids in the synthesis of bioactive aldehydes of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1686, 100-107 (2004).
  • Dahl,S.R., Kleiveland,C.R., Kassem,M., Lea,T., Lundanes,E. and Greibrokk,T. Determination of thromboxanes, leukotrienes and lipoxins using high-temperature capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on-line sample preparation. J. Chromatogr. A, 1216, 4648-4654 (-2009).
  • Dasgupta,S., Levery,S.B. and Hogan,E.L. 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine-series myelin glycolipids: characterization of novel 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine galactosylceramide. J. Lipid Res., 43, 751-761 (2002).
  • Deguchi,H., Fernandez,J.A., Hackeng,T.M., Banka,C.L. and Griffin,J.H. Cardiolipin is a normal component of human plasma lipoproteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 1743-1748 (2000).
  • DeLong,C.J., Baker,P.R.S., Samuel,M., Cu,Z. and Thomas,M.J. Molecular species composition of rat liver phospholipids by ESI-MS/MS: the effect of chromatography. J. Lipid Res., 42, 1959-1968 (2001).
  • DeLong,C.J., Hicks,A.M. and Cui,Z. Disruption of choline methyl group donation for phosphatidylethanolamine methylation in hepatocarcinoma cells. J. Biol. Chem., 277, 17217-17225 (2002).
  • Dermaux,A., Medvedovici,A., Ksir,M., VanHove,E., Talbi,M. and Sandra,P. Elucidation of the triglycerides in fish oil by packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography fractionation followed by capillary electrochromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry. J. Microcolumn Sep., 11, 451-459 (1999).
  • Deutsch,J., Kalderon, B., Purdon,A.D. and Rapoport,S.I. Evaluation of brain long-chain acylcarnitines during cerebral ischemia. Lipids, 35, 693-696 (2000).
  • Deziel,E., Lepine,F., Dennie,D., Boismenu,D., Mamer,O.A. and Villemur,R. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of mixtures of rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 57RP grown on mannitol or naphthalene. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1440, 244-252 (1999).
  • Dickinson,J.S. and Murphy,R.C. Mass spectrometric analysis of leukotriene A(4) and other chemically reactive metabolites of arachidonic acid. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 13, 1227-1234 (2002).
  • Dombrowsky,H., Clark,G.T., Rau,G.A., Bernhard,W. and Postle,A.D. Molecular species compositions of lung and pancreas phospholipids in the cftr(tm1HGU/tm1HGU) cystic fibrosis mouse. Pediatric Res., 53, 447-454 (2003).
  • Dorschel,C.A. Characterization of the TAG of peanut oil by electrospray LC-MS-MS. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 79, 749-753 (2002).
  • Dragani,L.K., Berrie,C.P., Corda,D. and Rotilio,D. Analysis of glycerophosphoinositol by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry using a beta-cyclodextrin-bonded column. J. Chromatogr. B, 802, 283-289 (2004).
  • Duffin,K., Obukowicz,M., Raz,A. and Shieh,J.J. Electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of lipid remodeling in essential fatty acid deficient mice. Anal. Biochem., 279, 179-188 (2000).
  • Duffin,K.L., Obukowicz,M.G., Salsgiver,W.J., Welsch,D.J., Shieh,C., Raz,A. and Needleman,P. Lipid remodeling in mouse liver and plasma resulting from Delta6 fatty acid desaturase inhibition. Lipids, 36, 1203-1208 (2001).
  • Duffin,K.L., Henion,J.D. and Shieh,J.J. Electrospray and tandem MS characterization of acylglycerol mixtures that are dissolved in non-polar solvents. Anal. Chem., 63, 1781-1788 (1991).
  • Ehehalt,R., Wagenblast,J., Erben,G., Lehmann,W.D., Hinz,U., Merle,U. and Stremmel,W. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine in intestinal mucus of ulcerative colitis patients. A quantitative approach by nanoelectrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 39, 737-742 (2004).
  • Endo,Y., Tagiri-Endo,M., Seo,H.S. and Fujimoto,K. Identification and quantification of molecular species of diacyl glyceryl ether by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection and mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 911, 39-45 (2001).
  • Enjalbal,C., Roggero,R., Cerdan,R., Martinez,J., Vial,H. and Aubagnac,J.L. Automated monitoring of phosphatidylcholine biosyntheses in Plasmodium falciparum by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, through stable isotope labeling experiments. Anal. Chem., 76, 4515-4521 (2004).
  • Esch,S.W., Williams,T.D., Biswas,S., Chakrabarty,A. and Levine,S.M. Sphingolipid profile in the CNS of the twitcher (globoid cell leukodystrophy) mouse: A lipidomics approach. Cell. Mol. Biol., 49, 779-787 (2003).
  • Evershed,R.P. Mass spectrometry of lipids. In: 'Lipid Analysis. A Practical Approach' (edited by R.J.Hamilton & S. Hamilton, IRL Press, Oxford), pp. 263-308 (1992).
  • Evershed,R.P. Application of modern mass spectrometric techniques to the analysis of lipids. In: 'Developments in the Analysis of Lipids', pp. 123-160 (edited by J.H.P. Tyman and M.H. Gordon, Royal Soc. Chem., Cambridge). (1994).
  • Fang,J.S. and Barcelona,M.J. Structural determination and quantitative analysis of bacterial phospholipids using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J. Microb. Methods, 33, 23-35 (1998).
  • Fang,J.S., Barcelona,M.J. and Semrau,J.D. F Characterization of methanotrophic bacteria on the basis of intact phospholipid profiles. FEMS Microbiol. Letts, 189, 67-72 (2000).
  • Fang,N.B., Yu,S.G. and Badger,T.M. LC-MS/MS analysis of lysophospholipids associated-with soy protein isolate. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 6676-6682 (2003).
  • Fard,A.M., Turner,A.G. and Willett,G.D. High-resolution electrospray-ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of macadamia nut oil. Austral. J. Chem., 56, 499-508 (2003).
  • Farwanah,H., Nuhn,P., Neubert,R. and Raith,K. Normal-phase liquid chromatographic separation of stratum corneum ceramides with detection by evaporative light scattering and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta, 492, 233-239 (2003).
  • Fauconnier,M.L., Welti,R., Blee,E. and Marlier,M. Lipid and oxylipin profiles during aging and sprout development in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1633, 118-126 (2003).
  • Fauconnier,M.L., Williams,T.D., Marlier,M. and Welti,R. Potato tuber phospholipids contain colneleic acid in the 2-position. FEBS Letts, 538, 155-158 (2003).
  • Fillet,M., Van Heugen,J.-C., Servais,A.-C., De Graeve.J. and Crommen,J. Separation, identification and quantitation of ceramides in human cancer cells by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 949, 225-233 (2002).
  • Ford,D.A., Han,X., Horner,C.C. and Gross,R.W. Accumulation of unsaturated acylcarnitine molecular species during acute myocardial ischemia: metabolic compartmentalization of products of fatty acyl-chain elongation in the acylcarnitine pool. Biochemistry, 35, 7903-7909 (1996).
  • Forrester,J.S., Milne,S.B., Ivanova,P.T. and Brown,H.A. Computational lipidomics: A multiplexed analysis of dynamic changes in membrane lipid composition during signal transduction. Mol. Pharmacol., 65, 813-821 (2004).
  • Fragopoulou,E., Antonopoulou,S. and Demopoulos,C.A. Biologically active lipids with antiatherogenic properties from white wine and must. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 2684-2694 (2002).
  • Fridriksson,E.K., Shipkova,P.A., Sheets,E.D., Holowka,D., Baird,B. and McLafferty,F.W. Quantitative analysis of phospholipids in functionally important membrane domains from RBL-2H3 mast cells using tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry. Biochemistry, 38, 8056-8063 (1999).
  • Ghardashkani,S., Gustavsson,M.L., Breimer,M.E., Larson,G. and Samuelsson,B.E. Negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of gangliosides, sulphatides and cholesterol 3-sulphate. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 9, 491-? (1995).
  • Gibson,B.W., Phillips,N.J., Melaugh,W. and Engstrom,J.J. Determining structures and functions of surface glycolipids in pathogenic Haemophilus bacteria by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. ACS Symposium Series, 619, 166-184 (1996).
  • Gil,J.H., Hong,J.K., Choe,J.C. and Kim,Y.H. Analysis of fatty acyl groups of diacyl galactolipid molecular species by HPLC/ESI-MS with in-source fragmentation. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 24, 1163-1168 (2003).
  • Gilleron,M., Ronet,C., Mempel,M., Monsarrat,B., Gachelin,G. and Puzo,G. Acylation state of the phosphatidylinositol mannosides from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin and ability to induce granuloma and recruit natural killer T cells. J. Biol. Chem., 276, 34896-34904 (2001).
  • Giuffrida,A., de Fonseca,F.R. and Piomelli,D. Quantification of bioactive acylethanolamides in rat plasma by electrospray mass spectrometry. Anal. Biochem., 280, 87-93 (2000).
  • Giuffrida,F., Destaillats,F., Skibsted,L.H. and Dionisi,F. Structural analysis of hydroperoxy- and epoxy-triacylglycerols by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 131, 41-49 (2004).
  • Giuffrida,F., Destaillats,F.R., Robert,F., Skibsted,L.H. and Dionisi,F. Formation and hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and sterol epoxides: Role of unsaturated triacylglycerol peroxyl radicals. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 37, 104-114 (2004).
  • Griffiths,W.J. Tandem mass spectrometry in the study of fatty acids, bile acids, and steroids. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 22, 81-152 (2003).
  • Griffiths,W.J., Brown,A., Reimendal,R., Yang,Y., Zhang,J. and Sjovall,J. A comparison of fast-atom-bombardment and electrospray as methods of ionization in the study of sulfated lipids and sulfonated lipids by tandem mass-spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 10, 1169-1174 (1996).
  • Griffiths,W.J., Hjertman,M., Lundsjo,A., Wejde,J., Sjovall,J. and Larsson,O. Analysis of dolichols and polyprenols and their derivatives by electron-impact, fast-atom-bombardment and electrospray-ionization tandem mass-spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 10, 663-675 (1996).
  • Griffiths,W.J., Jonsson,A.P., Liu,S., Rai,D.K. and Wang,Y. Electrospray and tandem mass spectrometry in biochemistry. Biochem. J., 355, 545-561 (2001).
  • Griffiths,W.J., Yang,Y., Lindgren,J.A. and Sjovall,J. Charge remote fragmentation of fatty acid anions in 400 eV collisions with Xenon atoms. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 10, 21-28 (1996).
  • Griffiths,W.J., Yang,Y., Sjovall,J. and Lindgren,J.A. Electrospray collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry of mono-hydroxylated, di-hydroxylated and tri-hydroxylated lipoxygenase products, including leukotrienes of the B-series and lipoxins. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 10, 183-196 (1996).
  • Griffiths,W.J., Yang,Y., Sjovall,J. and Lindgren,J.A. Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 10, 1054-1070 (1996).
  • Gu,M., Kerwin,J.L., Watts,J.D. and Aebersold,R. Ceramide profiling of complex lipid mixtures by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Anal. Biochem., 244, 347-356 (1997).
  • Guella,G., Frassanito,R. and Mancini,I. A new solution for an old problem: the regiochemical distribution of the acyl chains in galactolipids can be established by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 17, 1982-1994 (2003).
  • Gunnarsson,T., Ekblad,L., Karlsson,A., Michelsen,P., Odham,G. and Jergil,B. Separation of polyphosphoinositides using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection or electrospray mass spectrometry. Anal. Biochem., 254, 293-296 (1997).
  • Gunnarsson,T., Karlsson,A., Hanson,P., Johnson,G., Alling,C. and Odham,G. Determination of phosphatidylethanol in blood from alcoholic males using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering or electrospray mass spectrometric detection. J. Chromatogr. B, 705, 243-249 (1998).
  • Haigh,W.G., Yoder,T.F., Ericson,L., Pratum,T. and Winget,R.R. The characterization and cyclic production of a highly unsaturated homoserine lipid in Chlorella minutissima. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1299, 183-190 (1996).
  • Hall,L.M. and Murphy,R.C. Analysis of stable oxidized molecular species of glycerophospholipids following treatment of red blood cell ghosts with t-butylhydroperoxide. Anal. Biochem., 258, 184-194 (1998).
  • Hall,L.M. and Murphy,R.C. Electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of 5-hydroperoxy and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids generated by lipid peroxidation of red blood cell ghost phospholipids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 9, 527-532 (1998).
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Updated August 22, 2011