Literature Survey

Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Lipids

Atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry is one of the mildest ionization techniques available, but is particularly effective linked to high-performance liquid chromatography, as it can tolerate relatively high solvent flow rates. It appears to give especially good results with non-polar lipids, such as triacylglycerols, but it does have wider applications than this. We have also included references  to atmospheric pressure-photoionization mass spectrometry here for convenience. Chemical-ionization methods for fatty acid structure determination are listed separately.

The following references were collected as part of our regular literature reviews for our own research purposes. We cannot claim to have covered the subject exhaustively, but we have done our best. References are listed alphabetically by the first author of a paper, but not necessarily chronologically by that author. New references may be added at irregular intervals - check the bottom of the page for when it was last updated.

  • Adas, F., Picart,D., Berthou,F., Simon,B. and Amet,Y. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry of omega-and (omega-1)-hydroxylated metabolites of elaidic and oleic acids in human and rat liver microsomes. J. Chromatogr. B, 714, 133-144 (1998).
  • Banni, S., Contini,M.S., Angioni,E., Delana,M., Dessi,M.A., Melis,M.P., Carta,G. and Corongiu,F.P. A novel approach to study linoleic acid autoxidation: importance of simultaneous detection of the substrate and its derivative oxidation products. Free Rad. Res., 25, 43-53 (1996).
  • Banni, S., Day,B.W., Evans,R.W., Corongiu,F.P. and Lombardi,B. Detection of conjugated diene isomers of linoleic acid in liver lipids of rats fed a choline-devoid diet indicates that the diet does not cause lipoperoxidation. J. Nutr. Biochem., 6, 281-289 (1995).
  • Banni, S., Day,B.W., Evans,R.W., Corongui,F.P. and Lombardi,B. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of conjugated diene fatty acids in a partially hydrogenated fat. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 71, 1321-1325 (1994).
  • Becalski, A., Feng, S.Y., Lau, B.P.Y. and Zhao, T. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in food by LC-MS/MS: method development. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 403, 2933-2942 (2012).
  • Beermann, C., Winterling,N., Green,A., Möbius,M., Schmitt,J.J. and Boehm,G. Comparison of the structures of triacylglycerols from native and transgenic medium-chain fatty acid-enriched rape seed oil by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-ITMS). Lipids, 42, 383-394 (2007).
  • Bhuiyan, M., Tucker, D. and Watson, K. Determination and differentiation of triacylglycerol molecular species in Antarctic and non-Antarctic yeasts by atmospheric pressure-chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. J. Microbiol. Methods, 94, 249-256 (2013).
  • Black, B.A., Sun, C.X., Zhao, Y.Y., Ganzle, M.G. and Curtis, J.M. Antifungal lipids produced by lactobacilli and their structural identification by normal phase LC/atmospheric pressure photoionization-MS/MS. J. Agric. Food Chem., 61, 5338-5346 (2013).
  • Blair, I.A. Analysis of endogenous glutathione-adducts and their metabolites. Biomed. Chromatogr., 24, 29-38 (2010).
  • Breithaupt, D.E. Identification and quantification of astaxanthin esters in shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and in a microalga (Haematococcus pluvialis) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 3870-3875 (2004).
  • Breithaupt, D.E., Wirt,U. and Bamedi,A. Differentiation between lutein monoester regioisomers and detection of lutein diesters from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta L.) and several fruits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 66-70 (2002).
  • Butovich, I.A. On the lipid composition of human meibum and tears: Comparative analysis of nonpolar lipids. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci., 49, 3779-3789 (2008).
  • Butovich, I.A. Cholesteryl esters as a depot for very long chain fatty acids in human meibum. J. Lipid Res., 50, 501-513 (2009).
  • Butovich, I.A., Borowiak,A.M. and Eule,J.C. Comparative HPLC-MS(n) analysis of canine and human meibomian lipidomes: many similarities, a few differences. Scientific Reports, 1, 24 (2011).
  • Butovich, I.A., Uchiyama,E., Di Pascuale,M.A. and McCulley,J.P. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of lipids present in human meibomian gland secretions. Lipids, 42, 765-776 (2007).
  • Butovich, I.A., Uchiyama,E. and McCulley,J.P. Lipids of human meibum: mass-spectrometric analysis and structural elucidation. J. Lipid Res., 48, 2220-2235 (2007).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. APCI-MS for lipid analysis. INFORM, 9, 986-997 (1998).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. Dual parallel liquid chromatography with dual mass spectrometry (LC2/MS2) for a total lipid analysis. Frontiers Biosci., 13, 100-120 (2008).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. Dual parallel mass spectrometers for analysis of sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid and plasmalogen molecular species. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 12, 256-272 (1998).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for analysis of lipids. Lipids, 36, 327-346 (2001).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. APCI-MS in lipid analysis. In: Advances in Lipid Methodology - Five, pp. 171-253 (ed. R.O. Adlof, Oily Press, Bridgwater) (2003).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. Dual parallel liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for lipid analysis. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 510-576 (2005).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. The bottom-up solution to the triacylglycerol lipidome using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Lipids, 40, 383-417 (2005).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of triacylglycerols by atmospheric pressure ionization (APCI and ESI) mass spectrometry techniques. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 298-412 (2005).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. Atmospheric pressure ionization techniques in modern lipid analysis. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 1-18 (2005).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. Dual parallel mass spectrometry for lipid and vitamin D analysis. J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 3992-4003 (2010).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. Quadruple parallel mass spectrometry for analysis of vitamin D and triacylglycerols in a dietary supplement. J. Chromatogr. A, 1320, 48-65 (2013).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. ’Dilute-and-shoot’ triple parallel mass spectrometry method for analysis of vitamin D and triacylglycerols in dietary supplements. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 401, 3317-3334 (2011)
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Borchman,D. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization of sphingomyelin and dihydrosphingomyelin of human lens membranes. Ophthalmic Res., 29, 191-206 (1997).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Emken,E.A. Analysis of triglycerides using atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Lipids, 30, 173-175 (1995).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Neff,W.E. Analysis of genetically-modified Canola varieties by atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometric and flame ionization detection. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 14, 2203-2225 (1996).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Neff,W.E. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of triacylglycerols using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In: 'New Techniques and Applications in Lipid Analysis', pp. 45-80 (edited by R.E. McDonald and M.M. Mossoba, AOCS Press, Champaign) (1997).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Neff,W.E. Analysis of hydroxy-containing seed oils using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 21, 1485-1501 (1998).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Neff,W.E. Non-volatile products of triolein produced at frying temperatures characterized using liquid chromatography with online mass spectrometric detection. J. Chromatogr. A, 852, 417-432 (1999).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Neff,W.E. Autoxidation products of normal and genetically modified canola oil varieties determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. J. Chromatogr. A, 905, 85-102 (2001).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Neff,W.E. Dual parallel electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS), MS/MS and MS/MS/MS for the analysis of triacylglycerols and triacylglycerol oxidation products. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 16, 300-319 (2002).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Perry,R.H. Liquid chromatography with dual parallel mass spectrometry and P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analysis of sphingomyelin and dihydrosphingomyelin - I. Bovine brain and chicken egg yolk. J. Chromatogr. A, 1133, 149-171 (2006).
  • Byrdwell, W.C. and Perry,R.H. Liquid chromatography with dual parallel mass spectrometry and P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analysis of sphingomyelin and dihydrosphingomyelin - II. Bovine milk sphingolipids. J. Chromatogr. A, 1146, 164-185 (2007).
  • Byrdwell, W.C., Emken,E.A., Neff,W.E. and Adlof,R.O. Quantitative analysis of triglycerides using atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Lipids, 31, 919-935 (1996).
  • Byrdwell, W.C., Neff,W.E. and List,G.R. Triacylglycerol analysis of potential margarine base stocks by high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 446-457 (2001).
  • Cai, S.S. and Syage,J.A. Atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for analysis of fatty acid and acylglycerol lipids. J. Chromatogr. A, 1110, 15-26 (2006).
  • Cai, S.S. and Syage,J.A. Comparison of atmospheric pressure photoionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for analysis of lipids. Anal. Chem., 78, 1191-1199 (2006).
  • Cai, S.-S., Short,L.C., Syage,J.A., Potvin,M. and Curtis,J.M. Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry analysis of triacylglycerol lipids - Effects of mobile phases on sensitivity. J. Chromatogr. A, 1173, 88-97 (2007).
  • Careri, M., Elviri,L. and Mangia,E.A. Liquid chromatography-UV determination and liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric characterization of sitosterol and stigmasterol in soybean oil. J. Chromatogr. A, 935, 249-257 (2001).
  • Carretero, A.S., Carrasco-Pancorbo,A., Cortacero,S., Gori,A., Cerretani,L. and Fernández-Gutiérrez,A. A simplified method for HPLC-MS analysis of sterols in vegetable oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 110, 1142-1149 (2008).
  • Carrier, A., Parent,J. and Dupuis,S. Quantitation and characterization of phospholipids in pharmaceutical formulations by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 876, 97-109 (2000).
  • Castro-Perez, J., Previs,S.F., McLaren,D.G., Shah,V., Herath,K., Bhat,G., Johns,D.G., Wang,S.P., Mitnaul,L., Jensen,K., Vreeken,R., Hankemeier,T., Roddy,T.P. and Hubbard,B.K. In vivo D2O labeling to quantify static and dynamic changes in cholesterol and cholesterol esters by high resolution LC/MS. J. Lipid Res., 52, 159-169 (2011).
  • Christie, W.W. and Han, X. Lipid Analysis - Isolation, Separation, Identification and Lipidomic Analysis (4th edition), 446 pages (Oily Press, Bridgwater, U.K. and Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, U.K.) (2010) - Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
  • Cody, R.B. and Dane, A.J. Soft ionization of saturated hydrocarbons, alcohols and nonpolar compounds by negative-ion direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 24,329-334 (2013).
  • Corso, G., D'Apolito,O., Garofalo,D., Paglia,G. and Dello Russo,A. Profiling of acylcarnitines and sterols from dried blood or plasma spot by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization (APTDCI) tandem mass spectrometry. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1811, 669-679 (2011)
  • Couch, L.H., Churchwell,M.I., Doerge,D.R., Tolleson,W.H. and Howard,P.C. Identification of ceramides in human cells using liquid chromatography with detection by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 11, 504-512 (1997).
  • Cui, P.H., Duke,R.K., Tattam,B.N. and Duke,C.C. Monoepoxy octadecadienoates and monoepoxy octadecatrienoates 2: mass spectral characterization. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 152, 65-70 (2008).
  • Cvacka, J., Hovorka,O., Jiros,P., Kindl,J., Stransky,K. and Valterova,I. Analysis of triacylglycerols in fat body of bumblebees by chromatographic methods. J. Chromatogr. A, 1101, 226-237 (2006).
  • Cvacka, J., Krafkova,E., Jiros,P. and Valterova,I. Computer-assisted interpretation of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectra of triacylglycerols. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 20, 3586-3594 (2006).
  • Deineka, V.I., Lapshova, M.S., Zakharenko, E.V. and Deineka, L.A. Features of separation on polymeric reversed phase for two classes of higher saturated fatty acids esters. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. A, 87, 1912-1915 (2013).
  • Delobel, A., Roy,S., Touboul,D., Gaudin,K., Germain,D.P., Baillet,A., Brion,F., Prognon,P., Chaminade,P. and Laprevote,O. Atmospheric pressure photoionization coupled to porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography for the analysis of globotriaosylceramides. Application to Fabry disease. J. Mass Spectrom., 41, 50-58 (2006).
  • Delobel, A., Touboul,D. and Laprevote,O. Structural characterization of phosphatidylcholines by atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry. Eur. J. Mass Spectrom., 11, 409-417 (2005).
  • Dillon, J.T., Aponte, J.C., Tarozo, R. and Huang, Y.S. Efficient liquid chromatographic analysis of mono-, di-, and triglycerols using silver thiolate stationary phase. J. Chromatogr. A, 1240, 90-95 (2012).
  • Dobson, G. and Deighton,N. Analysis of phospholipid molecular species by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of diacylglycerol nicotinates. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 111, 1-17 (2001).
  • Dugo, P., Beccaria, M., Fawzy, N., Donato, P., Cacciola, F. and Mondello, L. Mass spectrometric elucidation of triacylglycerol content of Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil using non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography under ultra high pressure conditions. J. Chromatogr. A, 1259, 227-236 (2012).
  • Dugo, P., Favoino,O., Tranchida,P.Q., Dugo,G. and Mondello,L. Off-line coupling of non-aqueous reversed-phase and silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the characterization of rice oil triacylglycerol positional isomers. J. Chromatogr. A, 1041, 135-142 (2004).
  • Dugo, P., Kumm,T., Crupi,M.L., Cotroneo,A. and Mondello,L. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection in the analyses of triacylglycerols in natural lipidic matrixes. J. Chromatogr. A, 1112, 269-275 (2006).
  • Dugo, P., Kumm,T., Fazio,A., Dugo,G. and Mondello,L. Determination of beef tallow in lard through a multidimensional off-line non-aqueous reversed phase-argentation LC method coupled to mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci., 29, 567-575 (2006).
  • Dugo, P., Kumm,T., Lo Presti,M., Chiofalo,B., Salimei,E., Fazio,A., Cotroneo,A. and Mondello,L. Determination of triacylglycerols in donkey milk by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci., 28, 1023-1030 (2005).
  • Dugo ,P., Kumm,T., Chiofalo,B., Cotroneo,A. and Mondello,L. Separation of triacylglycerols in a complex lipidic matrix by using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection. J. Sep. Sci., 29, 1146-1154 (2006).
  • Escala, M., Rosell-Mele,A. and Masque,P. Rapid screening of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in continental Eurasia samples using HPLC/APCI-ion trap mass spectrometry. Organic Geochem., 38, 161-164 (2007).
  • Evershed,R.P., Dudd,S.N., Copley,M.S., Berstan,R., Stott,A.W., Mottram,H., Buckley,S.A. and Crossman,Z. Chemistry of archaeological animal fats. Acc. Chem. Res., 35, 660-668 (2002).
  • Fang,F., Ho,C.T., Sang,S.M. and Rosen,R.T. Determination of sphingolipids in nuts and seeds by a single quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. J. Food Lipids, 12, 327-343 (2005).
  • Farwanah,H., Wohlrab,J., Neubert,R.H.H. and Raith,K. Profiling of human stratum corneum ceramides by means of normal phase LC/APCI-MS. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 383, 632-637 (2005).
  • Farwanah,H., Pierstorff,B., Schmelzer,C.E.H., Raith,K., Neubert,R.H.H., Kolter,T. and Sandhoff,K. Separation and mass spectrometric characterization of covalently bound skin ceramides using LC/APCI-MS and nano-ESI-MS/MS. J. Chromatogr. B, 852, 562-570 (2007).
  • Fasciotti,M. and Netto,A.D.P. Optimization and application of methods of triacylglycerol evaluation for characterization of olive oil adulteration by soybean oil with HPLC-APCI-MS-MS. Talanta, 81, 1116-1125 (2010).
  • Fauconnot,L., Hau,J., Aeschlimann,J.M., Fay,L.B. and Dionisi,F. Quantitative analysis of triacylglycerol regioisomers in fats and oils using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 18, 218-224 (2004).
  • Fer,M., Goulitquer,S., Dreano,Y., Berthou,F., Corcos,L. and Amet,Y. Determination of polyunsatured fatty acid monoepoxides by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1115, 1-7 (2006).
  • Fezza,F., Bisogno,T., Minassi,A., Appendino,G., Mechoulam,R. and Di Marzo,V. Noladin ether, a putative novel endocannabinoid: inactivation mechanisms and a sensitive method for its quantification in rat tissues. FEBS Letts, 513, 294-298 (2002).
  • Fu,W.C., Gu,X.H., Tao,G.J., Tang,J. and Jiang,Z.L. Structure identification of triacylglycerols in the seed oil of Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviata Ser. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 86, 33-39 (2009).
  • Gastaldi,D., Medana,C., Giancotti,V., Aigotti,R., Dal Bello,F. and Baiocchi,C. HPLC-APCI analysis of triacylglycerols in milk fat from different sources. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 113, 197-207 (2011).
  • Gaudin,M., Imbert, L., Libong, D., Chaminade, P., Brunelle, A., Touboul, D. and Laprevote, O. Atmospheric pressure photoionization as a powerful tool for large-scale lipidomic studies. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 23, 869-879 (2012).
  • Gomez-Ariza,J.L., Arias-Borrego,A. and Garcia-Barrera,T. Use of flow injection atmospheric pressure photoionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast olive oil fingerprinting. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 20, 1181-1186 (2006).
  • Gomez-Ariza,J.L., Arias-Borrego,A., Garcia-Barrera,T. and Beltran,R. Comparative study of electrospray and photospray ionization sources coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer for olive oil authentication. Talanta, 70, 859-869 (2006).
  • Gonthier,M.-P., Hoareau,L., Festy,F., Matias,I., Valenti,M., Bes-Houtmann,S., Rouch,C., Silva,C.R.-D., Chesne,S., d'Hellencourt,C.L.), Cesari,M., Di Marzo,V. and Roche,R. Identification of endocannabinoids and related compounds in human fat cells. Obesity, 15, 837-845 (2007).
  • Gotoh,N., Matsumoto,Y., Nagai,T., Mizobe,H., Otake,I., Ichioka,K., Kuroda,I., Watanabe,H., Noguchi,N. and Wada,S. Actual ratios of triacylglycerol positional isomers consisting of saturated and highly unsaturated fatty acids in fishes and marine mammals. Food Chem., 127, 467-472 (2011).
  • Gotoh,N., Matsumoto, Y., Nagai, T., Mizobe, H., Yoshinaga, K., Kojima, K., Kuroda, I., Kitamura, Y., Shimizu, T., Ishida, H. and Wada, S. Actual ratio of triacylglycerol positional isomers in milk and cheese. J. Oleo Sci., 61, 173-180 (2012).
  • Griffiths, W.J. and Wang,Y.Q. Analysis of neurosterols by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. J. Chromatogr. B, 877, 2778-2805 (2009).
  • Grynbaum, M.D., Hentschel,P., Putzbach,K., Rehbein,J., Krucker,M., Nicholson,G. and Albert,K. Unambiguous detection of astaxanthin and astaxanthin fatty acid esters in krill (Euphausia superba Dana). J. Sep. Sci., 28, 1685-1693 (2005).
  • Gu, Y., Munoz-Garcia,A., Brown,J.C., Ro,J. and Williams,J.B. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids covalently bound to corneocytes in the stratum corneum of house sparrows Passer domesticus. J. Exp. Biol., 211, 1690-1695 (2008).
  • Hazotte, A., Libong,D., Matoga,A. and Chaminade,P. Comparison of universal detectors for high-temperature micro liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 1170, 52-61 (2007).
  • Holcapek, M., Jandera,P. and Fischer,J. Analysis of acylglycerols and methyl esters of fatty acids in vegetable oils and in biodiesel. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 31, 53-56 (2001).
  • Holcapek, M., Jandera,P., Zderadicka,P. and Hruba,L. Characterization of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of plant oils using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1010, 195-215 (2003).
  • Holcapek, M., Lisa,M., Jandera,P. and Kabatova,N. Quantitation of triacylglycerols in plant oils using HPLC with APCI-MS, evaporative light-scattering, and UV detection. J. Sep. Sci., 28, 1315-1333 (2005).
  • Hong, Y.-J., Turowski,M., Lin,J.-T. and Yokoyama,W.H. Simultaneous characterization of bile acid, sterols, and determination of acylglycerides in feces from soluble cellulose-fed hamsters using HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection and APCI-MS. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 9750-9757 (2007).
  • Hopmans, E.C., Kienhuis,M.V.M., Rattray,J.E., Jaeschke,A., Schouten,S. and Damste,J.S.S. Improved analysis of ladderane lipids in biomass and sediments using high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 20, 2099-2103 (2006).
  • Hopmans, E.C., Schouten,S., Pancost,R.D., van de rMeer,M.T.J. and Damste,J.S.S. Analysis of intact tetraether lipids in archaeal cell material and sediments by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 14, 585-589 (2000).
  • Hopmans, E.C., Weijers,J.W.H., Schefuss,E., Herfort,L., Damste,S.S. and Schouten,S. A novel proxy for terrestrial organic matter in sediments based on branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids. Earth Planetary Sci. Letts, 224, 107-116 (2004).
  • Hu, J., Wei, F., Dong, X.Y., Lv, X., Jiang, M.L., Li, G.M. and Chen, H. Characterization and quantification of triacylglycerols in peanut oil by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci., 36, 288-300 (2013).
  • Huang, S.M., Strangman,N.M. and Walker,J.M. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric measurement of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonylgiycerol in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Acta Pharm. Sinica, 20, 1098-1102 (1999).
  • Huguet, A., Fosse,C., Metzger,P., Fritsch,E. and Derenne,S. Occurrence and distribution of non-extractable glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in temperate and tropical podzol profiles. Org. Geochem., 41, 833-844 (2010).
  • Huguet, A., Fosse,C., Metzger,P., Fritsch,E. and Derenne,S. Occurrence and distribution of extractable glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in podzols. Org. Geochem., 41, 291-301 (2010).
  • Huguet, C., Hopmans,E.C., Febo-Ayala,W., Thompson,D.H., Damste,J.S.S. and Schouten,S. An improved method to determine the absolute abundance of glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether lipids. Org. Geochem., 37, 1036-1041 (2006).
  • Ikeda,M. and Kusaka,T. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of hydroxy and non-hydroxy fatty acids as amide derivatives. J. Chromatogr. B, 575, 197-205 (1992).
  • Imbert,L., Gaudin, M., Libong, D., Touboul, D., Abreu, S., Loiseau, P.M., Laprevote, O. and Chaminade, P. Comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization for a lipidomic analysis of Leishmania donovani. J. Chromatogr. A, 1242, 75-83 (2012).
  • Ismaiel,O.A., Halquist,M.S., Elmamly,M.Y., Shalaby,A. and Karnes,H.T. Monitoring phospholipids for assessment of ion enhancement and ion suppression in ESI and APCI LC/MS/MS for chlorpheniramine in human plasma and the importance of multiple source matrix effect evaluations. J. Chromatogr. B, 875, 333-343 (2008).
  • Jaeschke,A., Rooks,C., Trimmer,M., Nicholls,J.C., Hopmans,E.C., Schouten,S. and Damste,J.S.S. Comparison of ladderane phospholipid and core lipids as indicators for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in marine sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 2077-2088 (2009).
  • Jakab,A. and Forgacs,E. Characterization of plant oils on a monolithic silica column by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Chromatographia, 56, S69-S73 (2002).
  • Jakab,A., Heberger,K. and Forgacs,E. Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 976, 255-263 (2002).
  • Jakab,A., Jablonkai,I. and Forgacs,E. Quantification of the ratio of positional isomer dilinoleoyl-oleoyl glycerols in vegetable oils. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 17, 2295-2302 (2003).
  • Jakab,A., Nagy,K., Heberger,K., Vekey,K. and Forgacs,E. Differentiation of vegetable oils by mass spectrometry combined with statistical analysis. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 16, 2291-2297 (2002).
  • Jayasinghe, C., Gotoh, N. and Wada, S. Regiospecific analysis of shark liver triacylglycerols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 89, 1873-1884 (2012).
  • Kalo, P. Regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols. Lipid Technology, 25, 230-234 (2013).
  • Kalo, P.J. and Kemppinen, A. Regiospecific analysis of TAGs using chromatography, MS, and chromatography-MS. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 114, 399-411 (2012).
  • Karlsson, A.A. Analysis of intact polar lipids by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry with use of thermospray or atmospheric pressure ionization. In: 'Lipid Analysis in Oils and Fats', pp. 290-316 (edited by R.J. Hamilton, Blackie, London) (1998).
  • Karlsson, A.A., Michelsen,P. and Odham,G. Molecular species of sphingomyelin: Determination by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with electrospray and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. J. Mass Spectrom., 33, 1192-1198 (1998).
  • Karten, B., Boechzelt,H., Abuja,P.M., Mittelbach,M., Oettl,K. and Sattler,W. Femtomole analysis of 9-oxononanoyl cholesterol by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Lipid Res., 39, 1508-1519 (1998).
  • Karuna, R., von Eckardstein,A. and Rentsch,K.M. Dopant assisted-atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the quantification of 27-hydroxcholesterol in plasma. J. Chromatogr. B, 877, 261-268 (2009).
  • Kemmo, S., Ollilainen,V., Lampi,A.-M. and Piironen,V. Determination of stigmasterol and cholesterol oxides using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Food Chem., 101, 1438-1445 (2007).
  • Kimpe, K., Jacobs,P.A. and Waelkens,M. Analysis of oil used in late Roman oil lamps with different mass spectrometric techniques revealed the presence of predominantly olive oil together with traces of animal fat. J. Chromatogr. A, 937, 87-95 (2001).
  • Kimpe, K., Jacobs,P.A. and Waelkens,M. Mass spectrometric methods prove the use of beeswax and ruminant fat in late Roman cooking pots. J. Chromatogr. A, 968, 151-160 (2002).
  • Knappy, C.S., Chong,J.P.J. and Keely,B.J. Rapid discrimination of archaeal tetraether lipid cores by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 20, 51-59 (2009).
  • Knappy, C.S., Nunn,C.E.M., Morgan,H.W. and Keely,B.J. The major lipid cores of the archaeon Ignisphaera aggregans: implications for the phylogeny and biosynthesis of glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraether isoprenoid lipids. Extremophiles, 15, 517-528 (2011)
  • Kodai,T., Nakatani,T. and Noda,N. The absolute configurations of hydroxy fatty acids from the royal jelly of honeybees (Apis mellifera). Lipids, 46, 263-270 (2011).
  • Knodler, M., Kaiser,A., Carle,R. and Schieber,A. Profiling of alk(en)ylresorcinols in cereals by HPLC-DAD-APcI-MSn. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 391, 221-228 (2008).
  • Knoedler,M., Berardini,N., Kammerer,D.R., Carle,R. and Schieber,A. Characterization of major and minor alk(en)ylresorcinols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peels by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 21, 945-951 (2007).
  • Kofronova, E., Cvacka,J., Jiros,P., Sykora,D. and Valterova,I. Analysis of insect triacylglycerols using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 111, 519-525 (2009).
  • Kofronova, E., Cvacka,J., Vrkoslav,V., Hanus,R., Jiros,P., Kindl,J., Hovorka,O. and Valterova,I. A comparison of HPLC/APCI-MS and MALDI-MS for characterising triacylglycerols in insects: Species-specific composition of lipids in the fat bodies of bumblebee males. J. Chromatogr. B, 877, 3878-3884 (2009).
  • Koga, D., Santa,T., Fukushima,T., Homma,H. and Imai,K. Liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric determination of anandamide and its analogs in rat brain and peripheral tissues. J. Chromatogr. B, 690, 7-13 (1997).
  • Koga, D., Santa,T., Hagiwara,K., Imai,K., Takizawa,H., Nagano,T., Hirobe,M., Ogawa,M., Sato,T., Inoue,K. and Kudo,I. High-performance liquid chromatography and fluorometric detection of arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide) and its analogs, derivatized with 4-(N-chloroformylmethyl-N-methyl)amino-7-N,N-dimethylaminosulphonyl-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-COCL). Biomed. Chromatogr., 9, 56-57 (1995).
  • Kopec, R.E., Schweiggert, R.M., Riedl, K.M., Carle, R. and Schwartz, S.J. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode array detection for the quantitation of carotenoids, retinyl esters, alpha-tocopherol and phylloquinone in chylomicron-rich fractions of human plasma. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 27, 1393-1402 (2013).
  • Kornel, N., Jakab,A., Ferenc,P., Bongiorno,D., Ceraulo,L., Averna,M.R., Noto,D. and Karoly,V. Analysis of sterols by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 20, 2433-2440 (2006).
  • Kostiainen, R. and Kauppila,T. Analysis of steroids by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 472-487 (2005).
  • Kuksis, A., Suomela,J.P., Tarvainen,M. and Kallio,H. Lipidomic analysis of glycerolipid and cholesteryl ester autooxidation products. Mol. Biotech., 42, 224-268 (2009).
  • Kusaka,T. and Ikeda,M. LC-MS of fatty acids including hydroxy and hydroperoxy acids as their 3-methyl-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivatives. J. Chromatogr. A, 639, 165-173 (1993).
  • Kusaka,T., Ishihara,S., Sakaida,M., Mifune,A., Nakano,Y., Tsuda,K., Ikeda,M. and Nakano,H. Composition analysis of normal plant triacylglycerols and hydroperoxidized rac-1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl-sn-glycerols by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 730, 1-7 (1996).
  • Kushi,Y., Rokukawa,C., Numajir,Y., Kato,Y. and Handa,S. Analysis of underivatized glycosphingolipids by HPLC/atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. Anal. Biochem., 182, 405-410 (1989).
  • Laakso,P. Analysis of triacylglycerols: approaching the molecular composition of natural mixtures. Food Rev. Int., 12, 199-250 (1996).
  • Laakso,P. Characterization of alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid oils by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74, 1291-1300 (1997).
  • Laakso,P. and Manninen,P. Identification of milk fat triacylglycerols by capillary supercritical-fluid chromatography-atmospheric pressure-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Lipids, 32, 1285-1295 (1997).
  • Laakso,P. and Manninen,P. Mass spectrometric techniques in the analysis of triacylglycerols. In: 'Spectral Properties of Lipids', pp. 141-190 (edited by R.J. Hamilton & J. Cast, Sheffield Academic Press) (1998).
  • Laakso,P. and Voutilainen,P. Analysis of triacylglycerols by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Lipids, 31, 1311-1322 (1996).
  • Latorre,A., Rigol,A., Lacorte,S. and Barcelo,D. Comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of fatty and resin acids in paper mill process waters. J. Chromatogr. A, 991, 205-215 (2003).
  • Lee, S.H. and Blair,I.A. Targeted chiral lipidomics analysis by liquid chromatography electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ECAPCI/MS). Methods Enzymol., 433, 159-174 (2007).
  • Lee, S.H. and Blair,I.A. Targeted chiral lipidomics analysis of bioactive eicosanoid lipids in cellular systems. BMB Reports, 42, 401-410 (2009).
  • Lee, S.H., Oe,T., Arora,J.S. and Blair,I.A. Analysis of Fe-II-mediated decomposition of a linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Mass Spectrom., 40, 661-668 (2005).
  • Lee, S.H., Williams,M.V. and Blair,I.A. Targeted chiral lipidomics analysis. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediators, 77, 141-157 (2005).
  • Lee, S.H., Williams,M.V., DuBois,R.N. and Blair,I.A. Targeted lipidomics using electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 17, 2168-2176 (2003).
  • Lee, S.Y., Kim, J.R., Ha, M.Y., Shim, S.M. and Park, T.S. Measurements of diacylglycerols in skeletal muscle by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Lipids, 48, 287-296 (2013).
  • Lee, Y.J., Leverence, RC., Smith, EA., Valenstein, JS., Kandel, K. and Trewyn, BG. High-throughput analysis of algal crude oils using high resolution mass spectrometry. Lipids, 48, 297-305 (2013).
  • Lembcke, J., Ceglarek,U., Fiedler,G.M., Baumann,S., Leichtle,A. and Thiery,J. Rapid quantification of free and esterified phytosterols in human serum using APPI-LC-MS/MS. J. Lipid Res., 46, 21-26 (2005).
  • Lerma-Garcia, M.J., Lusardi,R., Chiavaro,E., Cerretani,L., Bendini,A., Ramis-Ramos,G. and Simo-Alfonso,E.F. Use of triacylglycerol profiles established by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection to predict the botanical origin of vegetable oils. J. Chromatogr. A, 1218, 7521-7527 (2011).
  • Lerma-Garcia, M.J., Ramis-Ramos,G., Herrero-Martinez,J.M. and Simo-Alfonso,E.F. Classification of vegetable oils according to their botanical origin using sterol profiles established by direct infusion mass spectrometry Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 22, 973-978 (2008).
  • Leskinen,H., Suomela,J.-P. and Kallio,H. Quantification of triacylglycerol regioisomers in oils and fat using different mass spectrometric and liquid chromatographic methods. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 21, 2361-2373 (2007).
  • Leskinen,H., Suomela,J.P., Pinta,J. and Kallio,H. Regioisomeric structure determination of alpha- and beta-linolenoyldilinoleoylglycerol in blackcurrant seed oil by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 80, 5788-5793 (2008).
  • Leskinen,H.M., Suomela,J.P. and Kallio,H.P. Quantification of triacylglycerol regioisomers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and ammonia negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 24, 1-5 (2010).
  • Liou, Y.B., Sheu,M.T., Liu,D.Z., Lin,SY. and Ho,H.O. Quantitation of ceramides in nude mouse skin by normal-phase liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Anal. Biochem., 401, 107-113 (2010).
  • Lisa, M. and Holcapek,M. Triacylglycerols profiling in plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1198, 115-130 (2008).
  • Lisa, M. and Holcapek, M. Characterization of triacylglycerol enantiomers using chiral HPLC/APCI-MS and synthesis of enantiomeric triacylglycerols. Anal. Chem., 85, 1852-1859 (2013).
  • Lisa, M., Cifkova,E. and Holcapek,M. Lipidomic profiling of biological tissues using off-line two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1218, 5146-5156 (2011)
  • Lísa,M., Holcapek,M., Rezanka,T. and Kabátová,N. High-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection characterization of delta5-polyenoic fatty acids in triacylglycerols from conifer seed oils J. Chromatogr. A., 1146, 67-77 (2007).
  • Lísa, M., Holcapek,M. and Bohac,M. Statistical evaluation of triacylglycerol composition in plant oils based on high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry data. J. Agric. Food Chem., 57, 6888-6898 (2009).
  • Lísa, M., Netušilová,K., Franek,L., Dvoráková,H., Vrkoslav,V. and Holcapek,M. Characterization of fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition in animal fats using silver-ion and non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. J. Chromatogr. A., 1218, 7499-7510 (2011).
  • Lisa, M., Velinska,H. and Holcapek,M. Regioisomeric characterization of triacylglycerols using silver-ion HPLC/MS and randomization synthesis of standards. Anal. Chem., 81, 3903-3910 (2009).
  • List, G.R., Byrdwell,W.C., Steidley,K.R., Adlof,R.O. and Neff,W.E. Triacylglycerol structure and composition of hydrogenated soybean oil margarine and shortening basestocks. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 4692-4695 (2005).
  • Liu, X.L., Leider,A., Gillespie,A., Groger,J., Versteegh,G.J.M. and Hinrichs,K.U. Identification of polar lipid precursors of the ubiquitous branched GDGT orphan lipids in a peat bog in Northern Germany. Org. Geochem., 41, 653-660 (2010).
  • Madl,T. and Mittelbach,M. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS. Analyst, 130, 565-570 (2005).
  • Manini,P., Andreoli,R., Careri,M., Elviri,L. and Musci,M. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in cholesterol oxide determination and characterization. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 12, 883-889 (1998).
  • Manninen,P. and Laakso,P. Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols in berry oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74, 1089-1098 (1997).
  • Manninen,P. and Laakso,P. Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry of gamma-and alpha-linolenic acid containing triacylglycerols in berry oils. Lipids, 32, 825-831 (1997).
  • Mata-Sandoval,J.C., Karns,J. and Torrents,A. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the characterization of rhamnolipid mixtures produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 on corn oil. J. Chromatogr. A, 864, 211-220 (1999).
  • Masukawa,Y., Tsujimura,H. and Narita,H. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for comprehensive profiling of ceramide molecules in human hair. J. Lipid Res., 47, 1559-1571 (2006).
  • Mazalli,M.R., Sawaya,A.C.H.F., Eberlin,M.N. and Bragagnolo,N. PLC method for quantification and characterization of cholesterol and its oxidation products in eggs. Lipids, 41, 615-622 (2006).
  • McCaffery,P., Evans,J., Koul,O., Volpert,A., Reid,K. and Ullman,M.D. Retinoid quantification by HPLC/MSn. J. Lipid Res., 43, 1143-1149 (2002).
  • McMahon,A., Butovich,I.A., Mata,N.L., Klein,M., Ritter,R., Richardson,J., Birch,D.G., Edwards,A.O. and Kedzierski,W. Retinal pathology and skin barrier defect in mice carrying a Stargardt disease-3 mutation in elongase of very long chain fatty acids-4. Mol. Vision, 13, 258-272 (2007).
  • Merelli,B., De Person,M., Favetta,P. and Lafosse,M. Analysis of triacylglycerols on porous graphitic carbon by high temperature liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 1157, 462-466 (2007).
  • Merrill,A.H. Sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways in the era of sphingolipidomics. Chem. Rev., 111, 6387-6422 (2011).
  • Mesaros,C., Lee,S.H. and Blair,I.A. Targeted quantitative analysis of eicosanoid lipids in biological samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B, 877, 2736-2745 (2009).
  • Mesaros,C., Lee,S.H. and Blair,I.A. Analysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by chiral liquid chromatography/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using [C-13]-analog internal standards. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 24, 3237-3247 (2010).
  • Mezine,I., Zhang,H.Z., Macku,C. and Lijana,R. Analysis of plant sterol and stanol esters in cholesterol-lowering spreads and beverages using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 5639-5646 (2003).
  • Miao,F.P., Lu,D.Y., Li,Y.G. and Zeng,M.T. Characterization of astaxanthin esters in Haematococcus pluvialis by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Anal. Biochem., 352, 176-181 (2006).
  • Mitamura,K., Nambu,Y., Tanaka,M., Kawanishi,A., Kitahori,J. and Shimada,K. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of vitamin D-3 3-fatty acid esters and their liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 22, 367-377 (1999).
  • Mondello,L., Tranchida,P.Q., Stanek,V., Jandera,P., Dugo,G. and Dugo,P. Silver-ion reversed-phase comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection in lipidic food analysis. J. Chromatogr. A, 1086, 91-98 (2005).
  • Moreau,R.A. An overview of modern mass spectrometry methods in the toolbox of lipid chemists and biochemists. In: Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques and Applications. pp. 29-49 (ed: M.M. Mossoba, J.K.G. Kramer, J.T. Brenna and R.E. McDonald, AOCS Press, Champaign, USA) (2006).
  • Moreau,R.A., Scott,K.M. and Haas,M.J. The identification and quantification of steryl glucosides in precipitates from commercial biodiesel. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 85, 761-770 (2008).
  • Mottram,H.R. Regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols using high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 276-297 (2005).
  • Mottram,H.R. and Evershed,R.P. Structure analysis of triacylglycerol positional isomers using atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Tetrahedron Letts., 37, 8593-8596 (1996).
  • Mottram,H.R. and Evershed,R.P. Elucidation of the composition of bovine milk fat triacylglycerols using high-performance liquid chromatography -atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 926, 239-253 (2001).
  • Mottram,H.R., Crossman,Z.M. and Evershed,R.P. Regiospecific characterisation of the triacylglycerols in animal fats using high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Analyst, 126, 1018-1024 (2001).
  • Mottram,H.R., Woodbury,S.E. and Evershed,R.P. Identification of triacylglycerol positional isomers present in vegetable oils by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 11, 1240-1252 (1997).
  • Mu,H.L. and Hoy,C.E. Application of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in identification of lymph triacylglycerols. J. Chromatogr. B, 748, 425-437 (2000).
  • Mu,H.L., Sillen,H. and Hoy,C.E. Identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in a structured lipid sample by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77, 1049-1059 (2000).
  • Muller,A., Markus,M.B., Geyer,R., Ringseis,R., Eder,K. and Steinhart,H. Identification of conjugated linoleic acid elongation and beta-oxidation products by coupled silver-ion HPLC APPI-MS. J. Chromatogr. B, 837, 147-152 (2006).
  • Murphy,R.C. Mass Spectrometry of Lipids (Handbook of Lipid Research, Vol. 7) (Plenum Press, N.Y.) (1993).
  • Munoz-Garcia,A., Ro,J., Brown,J.C. and Williams,J.B. Identification of complex mixtures of sphingolipids in the stratum corneum by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1133, 58-68 (2006).
  • Munoz-Garcia,A., Ro,J., Brown,J.C. and Williams,J.B. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry. J. Exp. Biol., 211, 447-458 (2008).
  • Murphy,R.C., Fiedler,J. and Hevko,J. Analysis of nonvolatile lipids by mass spectrometry. Chem. Rev. 101, 479-526 (2001).
  • Murphy,R.C., Leiker,T.J. and Barkley,R.M. Glycerolipid and cholesterol ester analyses in biological samples by mass spectrometry. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1811, 776-783 (2011)
  • Nagai,T., Mizobe,H., Otake,I., Ichioka,K., Kojima,K., Matsumoto,Y., Gotoh,N., Kuroda,I. and Wada,S. Enantiomeric separation of asymmetric triacylglycerol by recycle high-performance liquid chromatography with chiral column. J. Chromatogr. A, 1218, 2880-2886 (2011).
  • Neff,W.E. and Byrdwell,W.C. Triacylglycerol analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry - Crepis alpina and Vernonia galamensis seed oils. J. Liqu. Chromatogr., 18, 4165-4181 (1995).
  • Neff,W.E. and Byrdwell,W.C. Soybean oil triacylglycerol analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid-chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 72, 1185-1191 (1995).
  • Neff,W.E. and Byrdwell,W.C. Characterization of model triacylglycerol (triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) autoxidation products via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 818, 169-186 (1998).
  • Neff,W.E., Byrdwell,W.C. and List,G.R. Triacylglycerol structures of food fats high in saturated acids by HPLC and mass spectrometry. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 24, 837-854 (2001).
  • Neff,W.E., Byrdwell,W.C., Steidley,K.R., List,G.R. and Snowder,G. Triacylglycerol structure of animal tallows, potential food formulation fats, by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 25, 985-998 (2002).
  • Neto,R.R., Thompson,A. and Wolff,G.A. Determination of steryl sulphates in invertebrate tissue by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 383, 938-946 (2005).
  • Nichols,D.S. and Davies,N.W. Improved detection of polyunsaturated fatty acids as phenacyl esters using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. J. Microb. Methods, 50, 103-113 (2002).
  • Nuñez,A., Ashby,R., Foglia,T.A. and Solaiman,D.K.Y. Analysis and characterization of sophorolipids by liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. Chromatographia, 53, 673-677 (2001).
  • Nuñez,A., Ashby,R., Foglia,T.A. and Solaiman,D.K.Y. LC/MS analysis and lipase modification of the sophorolipids produced by Rhodotorula bogoriensis. Biotechnol. Letts, 26, 1087-1093 (2004).
  • Nuñez,A., Moreau,R.A. and Foglia,T.A. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of biosurfactant glycolipids secreted by microorganisms. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 447-471 (2005).
  • Paglia,G., D'Apolito,O. and Corso,G. Precursor ion scan profiles of acylcarnitines by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 22, 3809-3815 (2008).
  • Paglia,G., D'Apolito,O., Gelzo,M., Dello Russo,A. and Corso,G. Direct analysis of sterols from dried plasma/blood spots by an atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APTDCI-MS) method for a rapid screening of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Analyst, 135, 789-796 (2010).
  • Pajkovic,N. and van Breemen,R.B. Analysis of carotenoids using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 413-430 (2005).
  • Parcerisa,J., Casals,I., Boatella,J., Codony,R. and Rafecas,M. Analysis of olive and hazelnut oil mixtures by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols and gas-liquid chromatography of non-saponifiable compounds (tocopherols and sterols) J. Chromatogr. A, 881, 149-158 (2000).
  • Pettus,B.J, Kroesen,B.J., Szulc,Z.M., Bielawska,A., Bielawski,J., Hannun,Y.A. and Busman,M. Quantitative measurement of different ceramide species from crude cellular extracts by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 18, 577-583 (2004).
  • Pettus,B.J., Baes,M., Busman,M., Hannun,Y.A. and Van Veldhoven,P.P. Mass spectrometric analysis of ceramide perturbations in brain and fibroblasts of mice and human patients with peroxisomal disorders. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 18, 1569-1574 (2004).
  • Pettus,B.J., Bielawska,A., Kroesen,B.J., Moeller,P.D.R., Szulc,Z.M., Hannun,Y.A. and Busman,M. Observation of different ceramide species from crude cellular extracts by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 17, 1203-1211 (2003).
  • Piazza,G.J., Nunez,A. and Foglia,T.A. Epoxidation of fatty acids, fatty methyl esters, and alkenes by immobilized oat seed peroxygenase. J. Mol. Catal. B - Enzym., 21, 143-151 (2003).
  • Pitcher,A., Hopmans,E.C., Mosier,A.C., Park,S.J., Rhee,S.K., Francis,C.A., Schouten,S. and Damste,J.S.S. Core and intact polar glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether lipids of ammonia-oxidizing archaea enriched from marine and estuarine sediments. Appl. Environm. Microbiol., 77, 3468-3477 (2011).
  • Pitcher,A., Rychlik,N., Hopmans,E.C., Spieck,E., Rijpstra,W.I.C., Ossebaar,J., Schouten,S., Wagner,M. and Damste,J.S.S. Crenarchaeol dominates the membrane lipids of Candidatus nitrososphaera gargensis, a thermophilic Group I. 1b Archaeon. ISME J., 4, 542-552 (2010).
  • Qiu,D.F., Xiao,X.Y., Walton,T.J., Games,M.P.L. and Games,D.E. High-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry of phospholipids in Natronobacterium magadii. Eur. Mass Spectrom., 5, 151-156 (1999).
  • Ratsep, P. and Shah,V. Identification and quantification of sophorolipid analogs using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Microbiol. Methods, 78, 354-356 (2009).
  • Regert,M. Analytical strategies for discriminating archeological fatty substances from animal origin. Mass Spec. Rev., 30, 177-220 (2011).
  • Rezanka, T. Analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 23, 338-342 (2000).
  • Rezanka, T. Analysis of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Biochem. System. Ecol., 28, 847-856 (2000).
  • Rezanka, T. Identification of very long chain fatty acids by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy from green alga Chlorella kessleri. J. Sep. Sci., 25, 1332-1336 (2002).
  • Rezanka, T. and Sigler,K. The use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with high performance liquid chromatography and other separation techniques for identification of triacylglycerols. Curr. Anal. Chem., 3, 252-271 (2007).
  • Rezanka, T. and Sigler,K. Identification of very long chain fatty acids from sugar cane wax by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Phytochemistry, 67, 916-923 (2006).
  • Rezanka, T. and Sigler,K. Identification of very long chain unsaturated fatty acids from Ximenia oil by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Phytochemistry, 68, 925-934 (2007).
  • Rezanka, T. and Votruba,J. Analysis of fatty acids by APCI-MS. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 242-275 (2005).
  • Rezanka, T., Lukavsky, J., Nedbalova, L., Kolouchova, I. and Sigler, K. Effect of starvation on the distribution of positional isomers and enantiomers of triacylglycerol in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Phytochemistry, 80, 17-27 (2012).
  • Rezanka, T., Lukavsky,J., Nedbalova,L. and Sigler,K. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus starvation on the polyunsaturated triacylglycerol composition, including positional isomer distribution, in the alga Trachydiscus minutes. Phytochemistry, 72, 2342-2351 (2011).
  • Rezanka, T., Lukavsky, J., Siristova, L. and Sigler, K. Regioisomer separation and identification of triacylglycerols containing vaccenic and oleic acids, and alpha- and gamma-linolenic acids, in thermophilic cyanobacteria Mastigocladus laminosus and Tolypothrix sp. Phytochemistry, 78, 147-155 (2012).
  • Rezanka, T., Nedbalova,L. and Sigler,K. Identification of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from Amphidinium carterae by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Phytochemistry, 69, 2391-2399 (2008).
  • Rezanka, T., Nedbalova,L. and Sigler,K. Odd-numbered very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae identified by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytochemistry, 69, 2849-2855 (2008).
  • Rezanka, T., Nedbalova,L., Sigler,K. and Cepak,V. Identification of astaxanthin diglucoside diesters from snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Phytochemistry, 69, 479-490 (2008).
  • Rezanka, T., Olsovska,J., Sobotka,M. and Sigler,K. The use of APCI-MS with HPLC and other separation techniques for identification of carotenoids and related compounds. Curr. Anal. Chem., 5, 1-25 (2009).
  • Rezanka, T., Kolouchova, I., Cejkova, A., Cajthaml, T. and Sigler, K. Identification of regioisomers and enantiomers of triacylglycerols in different yeasts using reversed- and chiral-phase LC-MS. J. Sep. Sci., 36, 3310-3320 (2013).
  • Rezanka, T., Schreiberova,O., Cejkova,A. and Sigler,K. The genus Dracunculus - A source of triacylglycerols containing odd-numbered omega-phenyl fatty acids. Phytochemistry, 72, 1914-1926 (2011).
  • Rezanka, T., Schreiberova,O., Krulikovska,T., Masak,J. and Sigler,K. RP-HPLC/MS-APCI analysis of odd-chain TAGs from Rhodococcus erythropolis including some regioisomers. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 163, 373-380 (2010).
  • Ritter, A., Goulitquer,S., Salaun,J.P., Tonon,T., Correa,J.A. and Potin,P. Copper stress induces biosynthesis of octadecanoid and eicosanoid oxygenated derivatives in the brown algal kelp Laminaria digitata. New Phytologist, 180, 809-821 (2008).
  • Ronsein, G.E., Prado,F.M., Mansano,F.V., Oliveira,M.C.B., Medeiros,M.H.G., Miyamoto,S. and Di Mascio,P. Detection and characterization of cholesterol-oxidized products using HPLC coupled to dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 82, 7293-7301 (2010).
  • Ross, A.B., Redeuil,K., Vigo,M., Rezzi,S. and Nagy,K. Quantification of alkylresorcinols in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 24, 554-560 (2010).
  • Roy, S., Delobel,A., Gaudin,K., Touboul,D., Germain,D.P., Baillet,A., Prognon,P., Laprevote,O. and Chaminade,P. Liquid chromatography on porous graphitic carbon with atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of glycosphingolipids. J. Chromatogr. A, 1117, 154-162 (2006).
  • Rumpler, A., Edmonds,J.S., Katsu,M., Jensen,K.B., Goessler,W., Raber,G., Gunnlaugsdottir,H. and Francesconi, A. Arsenic-containing long-chain fatty acids in cod-liver oil: A result of biosynthetic infidelity? Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 47, 2665-2667 (2008).
  • Rush, D., Jaeschke,A., Hopmans,E.C., Geenevasen,J.A.J., Schouten,S. and Damste,J.S.S. Short chain ladderanes: Oxic biodegradation products of anammox lipids. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 75, 1662-1671 (2011).
  • Saliu, F., Modugno,F., Orlandi,M. and Colombini,M.P. HPLC-APCI-MS analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in historical pharmaceutical ointments from the eighteenth century. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 401, 1785-1800 (2011).
  • Sandra, P., Medvedovici,A., Zhao,Y. and David,F. Characterization of triglycerides in vegetable oils by silver-ion packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and coordination ion spray. J. Chromatogr. A, 974, 231-241 (2002).
  • Sato, Y., Suzuki, I., Nakamura, T., Bernier, F., Aoshima, K. and Oda, Y. Identification of a new plasma biomarker of Alzheimer's disease using metabolomics technology. J. Lipid Res., 53, 567-576 (2012).
  • Schmeer, K., Nicholson,G., Zhang,S.G., Bayer,E. and Bohninggaese,K. Identification of the lipids and the ant attractant 1,2-dioleoylglycerol in the arils of Commiphora guillaumini Perr. (Burseraceae) by supercritical-fluid chromatography atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 727, 139-146 (1996).
  • Schouten, S., Baas,M., Hopmans,E.C. and Damste,J.S.S. An unusual isoprenoid tetraether lipid in marine and lacustrine sediments. Org. Geochem., 39, 1033-1038 (2008).
  • Schouten, S., Baas,M., Hopmans,E.C., Reysenbach,A.L. and Damste,J.S.S. Tetraether membrane lipids of Candidatus \"Aciduliprofundum boonei\", a cultivated obligate thermoacidophilic euryarchaeote from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Extremophiles, 12, 119-124 (2008).
  • Schouten, S., Hopmans,E.C., Baas,M., Boumann,H., Standfest,S., Konneke,M., Stahl,D.A. and Damste,J.S.S. Intact membrane lipids of \"Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus,\" a cultivated representative of the cosmopolitan mesophilic group I crenarchaeota. Appl. Environm. Microbiol., 74, 2433-2440 (2008).
  • Schreiberova, O., Krulikovska,T., Sigler,K., Cejkova,A. and Rezanka,T. RP-HPLC/MS-APCI analysis of branched chain TAG prepared by precursor-directed biosynthesis with Rhodococcus erythropolis. Lipids, 45, 743-756 (2010).
  • Schuyl, P.J.W., de Joode,T., Vasconcellos,M.A. and Duchateau,G.S.M.J.E. Silver-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols. J. Chromatogr. A, 810, 53-61 (1998).
  • Shimada, K. and Mukai,Y. Studies on neurosteroids VII. Determination of pregnenolone and its 3-stearate in rat brains using high-performance liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B, 714, 153-160 (1998).
  • Shimada, K., Mukai,Y., Nakajima,A. and Naka,Y. Studies on neurosteroids.6. Characterization of fatty acid esters of pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone in rat brains using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Anal. Commun., 34, 145-146 (1997).
  • Sun, C.X., Zhao, Y.Y. and Curtis, J.M. The direct determination of double bond positions in lipid mixtures by liquid chromatography/in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta, 762, 68-75 (2013).
  • Suni, N.M., Aalto, H., Kauppila, T.J., Kotiaho, T. and Kostiainen, R. Analysis of lipids with desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) and desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). J. Mass Spectrom., 47, 611-619 (2012).
  • Takano, Y., Chikaraishi, Y., Ogawa, O.N., Nomaki, H., Morono, Y., Inagaki, F., Kitazato, H., Hinrichs, K.-U. and Ohkouchi, N. Sedimentary membrane lipids recycled by deep-sea benthic archaea. Nature Geoscience, 3, 858-861 (2010).
  • Talbot, H.M., Rohmer,M. and Farrimond,P. Rapid structural elucidation of composite bacterial hopanoids by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 21, 880-892 (2007).
  • Talbot, H.M., Rohmer,M. and Farrimond,P. Structural characterisation of unsaturated bacterial hopanoids by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 21, 1613-1622 (2007).
  • Tian, Q.G., Duncan,C.J.G. and Schwartz,S.J. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and in-source fragmentation of lutein esters. J. Mass Spectrom., 38, 990-995 (2003).
  • Tsao, R., Yang,R., Young,J.C., Zhu,H.H. and Manolis,T. Separation of geometric isomers of native lutein diesters in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1045, 65-70 (2004).
  • Tsikas,D., Zoerner,A.A. and Jordan,J. Oxidized and nitrated oleic acid in biological systems: Analysis by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS, and biological significance. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1811, 694-705 (2011)
  • Turich,C., Freeman,K.H., Bruns,M.A., Conte,M., Jones,A.D. and Wakeham,S.G. Lipids of marine Archaea: Patterns and provenance in the water-column and sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 3272-3291 (2007).
  • Uenishi,Y., Takii,T., Yano,I. and Sunagawa,M. Separation and molecular characterization of mycolic acid from the cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105) and BCG substrains by normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Microbiol. Methods, 77, 320-322 (2009).
  • Valto, P., Knuutinen,J. and Alen,R. Resin and fatty-acid analysis by solid-phase extraction coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 87, 87-97 (2007).
  • Van Breemen, R.B., Nikolic,D., Xu,X.Y., Xiong,Y.S., van Lieshout,M., West,C.E. and Schilling,A.B. Development of a method for quantitation of retinol and retinyl palmitate in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 794, 245-251 (1998).
  • van der Klift, E.J.C., Vivo-Truyols,G., Claassen,F.W., van Holthoon,F.L. and van Beek,T.A. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with ultraviolet, evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometric detection of triacylglycerols in corn oil. J. Chromatogr. A, 1178, 43-55 (2008).
  • van Smeden, J., Boiten, W.A., Hankemeier, T., Rissmann, R., Bouwstra, J.A. and Vreeken, R.J. Combined LC/MS-platform for analysis of all major stratum corneum lipids, and the profiling of skin substitutes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1841, 70-79 (2014).
  • Villegas, C., Zhao,Y. and Curtis,J.M. Two methods for the separation of monounsaturated octadecenoic acid isomers. J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 775-784 (2010).
  • Vrkoslav, V. and Cvacka, J. Identification of the double-bond position in fatty acid methyl esters by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1259, 244-250 (2012).
  • Vrkoslav, V., Hakova,M., Peckova,K., Urbanova,K. and Cvacka,J. Localization of double bonds in wax esters by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing the fragmentation of acetonitrile-related adducts. Anal. Chem., 83, 2978-2986 (2011).
  • Vrkoslav, V., Urbanova,K. and Cvacka,J. Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 4184-4194 (2010).
  • Vrkoslav, V., Urbanova, K., Hakova, M. and Cvacka, J. Analysis of wax esters by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1302, 105-110 (2013).
  • Wei, F., Ji, S.X., Hu, N., Lv, X., Dong, X.Y., Feng, Y.Q. and Chen, H. Online profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1312, 69-79 (2013).
  • Weijers, J.W.H., Schouten,S., van den Donker,J.C., Hopmans,E.C. and Sinninghe Damsté,J.S. Environmental controls on bacterial tetraether membrane lipid distribution in soils. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 703–713 (2007).
  • Williams, J., Pandarinathan,L., Wood,J., Vouros,P. and Makriyannis,A. Endocannabinoid metabolomics: A novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry reagent for fatty acid analysis. AAPS J., 8, E655-E660 (2006).
  • Williams, J., Wood,J., Pandarinathan,L., Karanian,D.A., Bahr,B.A., Vouros,P. and Makriyannis,A. Quantitative method for the profiling of the endocannabinoid metabolome by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS. Anal. Chem., 79, 5582-5593 (2007).
  • Yamauchi, R. Analysis of molecular species of plant glycolipids by HPLC/APCI-MS. In 'Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques' (Ed. W.C. Byrdwell, AOCS Press, Champaign), pp. 431-446 (2005).
  • Yamauchi, R., Aizawa,K., Inakuma,T. and Kato,K. Analysis of molecular species of glycolipids in fruit pastes of red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 622-627 (2001).
  • Yin, H.Y. and Porter,N.A. New insights regarding the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Antiox. Redox Signaling, 7, 170-184 (2005).
  • Yin, H., Brooks,J.D., Gao,L., Porter,N.A. and Morrow,J.D. Identification of novel autoxidation products of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid in vitro and in vivo. J. Biol. Chem., 282, 29890-29901 (2007).
  • Yin, H.Y., Musiek,E.S., Gao,L., Porter,N.A. and Morrow,J.D. Regiochemistry of neuroprostanes generated from the peroxidation of docosahexaenoic acid in vitro and in vivo. J. Biol. Chem., 280, 26600-26611 (2005).
  • Yoshinaga, K., Nagai, T., Mizobe, H., Kojima, K. and Gotoh, N. Simple method for the quantification of milk fat content in foods by LC-APCI-MS/MS using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol as an indicator. J. Oleo Sci., 62, 115-121 (2013).
  • You, J., Zhao,X., Suo,Y., Li,Y., Wang,H. and Chen,G. Determination of long-chain fatty acids in bryophyte plants extracts by HPLC with fluorescence detection and identification with MS. J. Chromatogr. B, 848, 283-291 (2007).

 

Updated February 5, 2013