Literature Survey

Analysis of Non-Conjugated trans Fatty Acids

 

As long as doubts remain regarding the nutritional safety of fatty acids containing double bonds of the trans configuration methods for analysis will be of special importance. The following review articles are especially recommended -

  • Firestone,D. and Sheppard,A. Determination of trans fatty acids. In Advances in Lipid Methodology - One' (edited by W.W. Christie, Oily Press, Ayr), pp. 273-322 (1992).
  • McDonald,R.E. and Mossoba,M.M. Analysis of trans fatty acids. In Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology, pp. 137-166 (edited by C.C. Akoh and D.B. Min, Dekker, N.Y.) (1997).
  • Ratnayake,W.M.N. Analysis of trans fatty acids. In Trans Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, pp. 115-161 (edited by J.L. Sebedio and W.W. Christie, Oily Press, Dundee) (1998).

The following references were collected as part of our regular literature reviews for our own research purposes. They cover the years from 1990 onwards. We cannot claim to have covered the subject exhaustively, but we have done our best. Conjugated trans-fatty acids are listed elsewhere. References are listed alphabetically by the first author of a paper, but not necessarily chronologically by that author. The list will be updated at approximately yearly intervals.

  • Ackman,R.G. and MacPherson,E.J. Coincidence of cis-monoethylenic and trans-monoethylenic fatty acids simplifies the open-tubular gas-liquid chromatography of butyl esters of butter fatty acids. Food Chem., 50, 45-52 (1994).
  • Adam,M., Chew,M., Wasserman,S., McCollum,A., McDonald,R.E. and Mossoba,M.M. Determination of trans fatty acids in hydrogenated vegetable oils by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy: Two limited collaborative studies. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75, 353-358 (1998).
  • Adam,M., Mossoba,M.M. and Lee,T. Rapid determination of total trans fat content by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy: An International Collaborative Study. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77, 457-462 (2000).
  • Adam,M., Mossoba,M.M., Dawson,T., Chew,M. and Wasserman,S. Comparison of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy to capillary gas chromatography for trans fatty acid determination. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 76, 375-378 (1999).
  • Adlof,R. and Lamm,T. Fractionation of cis-and trans-oleic, linoleic, and conjugated linoleic fatty acid methyl esters by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 799, 329-332 (1998).
  • Adlof,R.O. Separation of cis and trans fatty acid methyl esters by silver ion HPLC. J. Chromatogr. A, 659, 95-99 (1994).
  • Adlof,R.O., Copes,L.C. and Emken,E.A. Analysis of the monoenoic fatty acid distribution in hydrogenated vegetable oils by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 72, 571-574 (1995).
  • Afonso,C., Riu,A., Xu,Y., Fournier,F. and Tabet,J.C. Structural characterization of fatty acids cationized with copper by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry under low-energy collision-induced dissociation. J. Mass Spectrom., 40, 342-349 (2005).
  • Agiomyrgianaki,A., Sedman, J., de Voort, F.R.V. and Dais, P. Cis and trans components of lipids: Analysis by 1H NMR and silver shift reagents. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 114, 504-509 (2012).
  • Albuquerque,T.G., Costa,H.S., Castilho,M.C. and Sanches-Silva,A. Trends in the analytical methods for the determination of trans fatty acids content in foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 22, 543-560 (2011).
  • Ali,L.H., Angyal,G., Weaver,C.M., Rader,J.I. and Mossoba,M.M. Determination of total trans fatty acids in foods: comparison of capillary-column gas chromatography and single-bounce horizontal attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73, 1699-1705 (1996).
  • Aparicio,R. and Aparicio-Ruiz,R. Authentication of vegetable oils by chromatographic techniques J. Chromatogr. A, 881, 93-104 (2000).
  • Aro,A., Kosmeijer-Schuil,T., van de Bovenkamp,P., Hulshof,P., Zock,P and Katan,M.B. Analysis of C-18:1 cis and trans fatty acid isomers by the combination of gas-liquid chromatography of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives and methyl esters. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75, 977-985 (1998).
  • Ashraf-Khorassani,M., Ude,M., Doane-Weideman,T., Tomczak,J. and Taylor,L.T. Comparison of gravimetry and hydrolysis/derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of fat from standard reference infant formula powder using supercritical fluid extraction. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 1822-1826 (2002).
  • Asperger, A., Engewald,W. and Fabian,G. Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation - a simple and rapid online derivatization method for the gas chromatographic analysis of natural waxes. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 61, 91-109 (2001).
  • Azizian, H. and Kramer,J.K.G. A rapid method for the quantification of fatty acids in fats and oils with emphasis on trans fatty acids using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR). Lipids, 40, 855-867 (2005).
  • Azizian, H. and Kramer,J.K.G. Application of FT-NIR for rapid determination of the trans fatty acid composition in fats and oils. In: Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques and Applications. pp. 303-334 (ed: M.M. Mossoba, J.K.G. Kramer, J.T. Brenna and R.E. McDonald, AOCS Press, Champaign, USA) (2006).
  • Azizian, H., Kramer,J.K.G. and Winsborough,S. Factors influencing the fatty acid determination in fats and oils using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 109, 960-968 (2007).
  • Baillet, A., Corbeau,L., Rafidison,P. and Ferrier,D. Separation of isomeric compounds by reversed-phase HPLC using Ag+ complexation - application to cis-trans fatty acid methyl esters and retinoic acid photoisomers. J. Chromatogr. A, 634, 251-256 (1993).
  • Bansal, G., Zhou,W.B., Tan,T.W., Neo,F.L. and Lo,H.L. Analysis of trans fatty acids in deep frying oils by three different approaches. Food Chem., 116, 535-541 (2009).
  • Barcarolo, R., Bau,A., Moreno,J.B., Dimitrova,B. and Anklam,E. On-line LC-GC method for determination of isomers of nervonic acid in meat-derived food. J. Sep. Sci., 26, 1347-1352 (2003).
  • Barra, P.M.D., Castro, R.D.C., de Oliveira, P.L., Aued-Pimentel, S., da Silva, S.A. and de Oliveira, M.A.L. An alternative method for rapid quantitative analysis of majority cis-trans fatty acids by CZE. Food Res. Int., 33-41 (2013).
  • Buchgraber, M. and Ulberth,F. Determination of trans octadecenoic acids by silver-ion chromatography-gas liquid chromatography: An intercomparison of methods. J. Ass. Off. Anal. Chem. Int., 84, 1490-1498 (2001).
  • Buchgraber, M. and Ulberth,F. Determination of low level trans unsaturation in physically refined vegetable oils by capillary GLC - Results of 3 intercomparison studies. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 104, 792-799 (2002).
  • Bysted, A., Cold,S. and Holmer,G. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 59, 205-214 (1999).
  • Calvey, E.M., McDonald,R.E., Page,S.W., Mossoba,M.M. and Taylor,L.T. Evaluation of SFC/FT-IR for examination of hydrogenated soybean oil. J. Agric. Food Chem., 39, 542-548 (1991).
  • Challinor,J.M. Review: the development and applications of thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation reactions. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 61, 3-34 (2001).
  • Chardigny, J.-M., Sebedio,J.L., Grandgirard,A., Martine,L., Berdeaux,O. and Vatele,J.-M. Identification of novel trans isomers of 20:5n-3 in liver lipids of rats fed a heated oil. Lipids, 31, 165-168 (1996).
  • Chardigny, J.-M., Wolff,R.L., Mager,E., Sebedio,J.L., Martine,L. and Juaneda,P. Trans-monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 49, 523-531 (1995).
  • Chisaguano, A.M., Lozano, B., Molto-Puigmarti, C., Castellote, A.I., Rafecas, M. and Lopez-Sabater, M.C. Elaidic acid, vaccenic acid and rumenic acid (c9, t11-CLA) determination in human plasma phospholipids and human milk by fast gas chromatography. Anal. Methods, 5, 1264-1272 (2013).
  • Chmilenko, F.A., Minaeva,N.P. and Sidorova,L.P. Complex chromatographic determination of the adulteration of dairy products: A new approach. J. Anal. Chem., 66, 572-581 (2011).
  • Christie, W.W. and Han, X. Lipid Analysis - Isolation, Separation, Identification and Lipidomic Analysis (4th edition), 446 pages (Oily Press, Bridgwater, U.K. and Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, U.K.) (2010) - Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
  • Christy, A.A. Infrared spectroscopy and partial least square calibration in the simultaneous quantification of isolated trans and conjugated linoleic acids. In: Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques and Applications. pp. 335-354 (ed: M.M. Mossoba, J.K.G. Kramer, J.T. Brenna and R.E. McDonald, AOCS Press, Champaign, USA) (2006).
  • Christy, A.A. Thermally induced isomerization of trilinolein and trilinoelaidin at 250 degrees C: analysis of products by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. Lipids, 44, 1105-1112 (2009).
  • Christy, A.A., Egeberg,P.K. and Ostensen,E.T. Simultaneous quantitative determination of isolated trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in oils and fats by chemometric analysis of the infrared profiles. Vibrational Spectr., 33, 37-48 (2003).
  • Cruz-Hernandez,C., Deng,Z.Y., Zhou,J.Q., Hill,A.R., Yurawecz,M.P., Delmonte,P., Mossoba,M.M., Dugan,M.E.R. and Kramer,J.K.G. Methods for analysis of conjugated linoleic acids and trans-18:1 isomers in dairy fats by using a combination of gas chromatography, silver-ion thin-layer chromatography/gas chromatography, and silver-ion liquid chromatography. J. Ass. Off. Anal. Chem. Int., 87, 545-562 (2004).
  • De Castro,P.M., Barra,M.M., Ribeiro,M.C.C., Aued-Pimentel,S., Da Silva,S.A. and De Oliveira,M.A.L. Total trans fatty acid analysis in spreadable cheese by capillary zone electrophoresis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58, 1403-1409 (2010).
  • De Greyt,W., Kint,A., Kellens,M. and Huyghebaert,A. Determination of low trans levels in refined oils by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75, 115-118 (1998).
  • de Koning,S., van der Meer,B., Alkema,G., Janssen,H.G. and Brinkman,U.A.T. Automated determination of fatty acid methyl ester and cis/trans methyl ester composition of fats and oils. J. Chromatogr. A, 922, 391-397 (2001).
  • Delmonte, P. and Rader,J.I. Evaluation of gas chromatographic methods for the determination of trans fat. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 389, 77-85 (2007).
  • Delmonte, P., Fardin Kia, A.-R., Kramer, J.K.G., Mossoba, M.M., Sidisky, L. and Rader, J.I. Separation characteristics of fatty acid methyl esters using SLB-IL111, a new ionic liquid coated capillary gas chromatographic column J. Chromatogr. A, 1218, 545-554 (2011).
  • Delmonte, P., Fardin-Kia, A.R., Kramer, J.K.G., Mossoba, M.M., Sidisky, L., Tyburczy, C. and Rader, J.I. Evaluation of highly polar ionic liquid gas chromatographic column for the determination of the fatty acids in milk fat. J. Chromatogr. A, 1233, 137-146 (2012).
  • Delmonte, P., Hu,Q., Kia,A.R.F. and Rader,J.I. Preparation, chromatographic separation and relative retention times of cis/trans heptadecaenoic (17:1) fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. A, 1214, 30-36 (2008).
  • Delmonte, P., Kia,A.R.F., Hu,Q. and Rader,J.I. Review of methods for preparation and gas chromatographic separation of trans and cis reference fatty acids. J. AOAC Int., 92, 1310-1326 (2009).
  • Delmonte, P., Kramer,J.K.G. and Yurawecz,M.P. Analysis of trans-18:1 fatty acids by silver ion HPLC. In: Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques and Applications. pp. 191-203 (ed: M.M. Mossoba, J.K.G. Kramer, J.T. Brenna and R.E. McDonald, AOCS Press, Champaign, USA) (2006).
  • Destaillats, F., Wolff,R.L., Precht,D. and Molkentin,J. Study of individual trans-and cis-16:1 isomers in cow, goat, and ewe cheese fats by gas-liquid chromatography with emphasis on the trans-Delta 3 isomer. Lipids, 35, 1027-1032 (2000).
  • Destaillats, F., Golay,P.-A., Joffre,F., de Wispelaere,M., Hug,B., Giuffrida,., Fauconnot,L. and Dionisi,F. Comparison of available analytical methods to measure trans-octadecenoic acid isomeric profile and content by gas-liquid chromatography in milk fat. J. Chromatogr. A, 1145, 222-228 (2007).
  • Dieffenbacher,A. and Dysseler,P. The determination of trans unsaturated fatty acids in edible oils and fats by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Pure Appl. Chem., 69, 1829-1837 (1997).
  • Dionisi,F., Golay,P.A. and Fay,L.B. Influence of milk fat presence on the determination of trans fatty acids in fats used for infant formulae. Anal. Chim. Acta, 465, 395-407 (2002).
  • Duchateau,G.S.M.J.E., Van Oosten,H.J. and Vasconcellos,M.A. Analysis of cis-fatty acid and trans-fatty acid isomers in hydrogenated and refined vegetable oils by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73, 275-282 (1996).
  • Dugan,M.E.R., Kramer,J.K.G., Robertson,W.M., Meadus,W.J., Aldai,N. and Rolland,D.C. Comparing subcutaneous adipose tissue in beef and muskox with emphasis on trans 18:1 and conjugated linoleic acids. Lipids, 42, 509-518 (2007).
  • Dupuy,N., Wojciechowski,C. and Huvenne,J.P. Quantitative analysis of edible trans fats by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy from raw materials to finished products. Sci. Aliments, 19, 677-68 (1999).
  • Ecker,J., Scherer, M., Schmitz, G. and Liebisch, G. A rapid GC-MS method for quantification of positional and geometric isomers of fatty acid methyl esters. J. Chromatogr. B, 897, 98-104 (2012).
  • Favier,J.P., Bicanic,D., van de Bovenkamp,P., Chirtoc,M. and Helander,P. Detection of total trans-fatty acids content in margarine: an intercomparison study of GLC, GLC+TLC, FT-IR, and optothermal window (open photoacoustic cell). Anal. Chem., 68, 729-733 (1996).
  • Ferreri,C., Grabovskiy, S.A., Aoun, M., Melchiorre, M., Kabal'nova, N., Feillet-Coudray, C., Fouret, G., Coudray, C. and Chatgilialoglu, C. Trans fatty acids: chemical synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid isomers and detection in rats fed a deodorized fish oil diet. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 25, 687-694 (2012).
  • Ferreri,C., Mennella,M.R.F., Formisano,C., Landi,L. and Chatgilialoglu,C. Arachidonate geometrical isomers generated by thiyl radicals: The relationship with trans lipids detected in biological samples. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 33, 1516-1526 (2002).
  • Ferreri,C., Samadi,A., Sassatelli,F., Landi,L. and Chatgilialoglu,C. Regioselective cis-trans isomerization of arachidonic double bonds by thiyl radicals: The influence of phospholipid supramolecular organization. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126, 1063-1072 (2004).
  • Firestone,D. and Sheppard,A. Determination of trans fatty acids. In: 'Advances in Lipid Methodology - One' (edited by W.W. Christie, Oily Press, Ayr), pp. 273-322 (1992).
  • Flatten,A., Bryhni,E.A., Kohler,A., Egelandsdal,B. and Isaksson,T. Determination of C22:5 and C22:6 marine fatty acids in pork fat with Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy. Meat Sci., 69, 433-440 (2005).
  • Fournier,W., Destaillats,F., Juaneda,P., Dionisi,F., Lambelet,P., Sebedio,J.L. and Berdeaux,O. Thermal degradation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during deodorization of fish oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 108, 33-42 (2006).
  • Fournier,V., Destaillats,F., Hug,B., Golay,P.-A., Joffre,F. Juaneda,P., Semon,E., Dionisi,F., Lambelet,P. Sebedio,J.-L. and Berdeaux,O. Quantification of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid geometrical isomers formed during fish oil deodorization by gas-liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 1154, 353-359 (2007).
  • Franko,M., Bicanic,D. and Vandebovenkamp,P. Dual-beam infrared thermal lens spectrometry at 965 cm(-1) absorption band as a measure of nonconjugated trans-fatty acids content in margarine samples. J. Physique IV, 4, 479-482 (1994).
  • Fritsche,J. and Steinhart,H. Analysis of trans fatty acids. In: 'New Techniques and Applications in Lipid Analysis', pp. 234-255 (edited by R.E. McDonald and M.M. Mossoba, AOCS Press, Champaign) (1997).
  • Fritsche,J., Steinhart,H., Mossoba,M.M., Yurawecz,M.P., Sehat,N. and Ku,Y. Rapid determination of trans-fatty acids in human adipose tissue: comparison of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography. J. Chromatogr. B, 705, 177-182 (1998).
  • Gao,L., Sedman,J., Giarcia-Gonzalez,D.L., Ehsan,S., Sprules,T. and van de Voort,F.R. C-13 NMR as a primary method for determining saturates, cis- and trans-monounsaturates and polyunsaturates in fats and oils for nutritional labeling purposes. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 111, 612-622 (2009).
  • Golay,P.A., Dionisi,F., Hug,B., Giuffrida,F. and Destaillats,F. Direct quantification of fatty acids in dairy powders with special emphasis on trans fatty acid content. Food Chem., 101, 1115-1120 (2007).
  • Golay,P.A., Giuffrida,F., Dionisi,F. and Destaillats,F. Streamlined methods for the resolution and quantification of fatty acids including trans fatty acid isomers in food products by gas chromatography. J. AOAC Int., 92, 1301-1309 (2009).
  • G?mez-Cort?s,P., Tyburczy,C., Brenna,J.T., Ju?rez,M. and Angel de la Fuente,M. Characterization of cis-9,trans-11,trans-15-C18:3 in milk fat by GC and covalent adduct chemical ionization tandem MS. J. Lipid Res., 50, 2412-2420 (2009).
  • Goto, H., Shionoya, N., Sugie, M., Tominaga, M., Shimelis, O., Taniguchi, M., Igarashi, T. and Hirata, Y. Novel pre-fractionation method of trans fatty acids by gas chromatography with silver-ion cartridge column. J. Oleo Sci., 61, 49-56 (2012).
  • Guillen, M.D. and Cabo,N. Infrared spectroscopy in the study of edible oils and fats. J. Sci. Food Agric., 75, 1-11 (1997).
  • Gunstone, F.D. The composition of hydrogenated fats determined by high resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy. Chem. Ind. (London), 802-803 (1991).
  • Gunstone, F.D. The composition of hydrogenated fats by high-resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 70, 965-970 (1993).
  • Gupta, A. and Bowden, N.B. Separation of cis-fatty acids from saturated and trans-fatty acids by nanoporous polydicyclopentadiene membranes. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 5, 924–933 (2013).
  • Ha, J., Seo,D. and Shin,D. Determination of elaidic and vaccenic acids in foods using GC x GC-FID and GC x GC-TOFMS. Talanta, 85, 252-258 (2011).
  • Hejazi, L., Hibbert,D.B. and Ebrahimi,D. Identification of the geometrical isomers of alpha-linolenic acid using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a binary decision tree. Talanta, 83, 1233-1238 (2011).
  • Honkanen, A.M., Griinari, J.M., Vanhatalo, A., Ahvenjarvi, S., Toivonen, V. and Shingfield, K.J. Characterization of the disappearance and formation of biohydrogenation intermediates during incubations of linoleic acid with rumen fluid in vitro. J. Dairy Sci., 95, 1376-1394 (2012).
  • Huang,Z.L., Wang,B.W. and Crenshaw,A.A. A simple method for the analysis of trans fatty acid with GC-MS and AT (TM)-Silar-90 capillary column. Food Chem., 98, 593-598 (2006).
  • Imbs,A.B. and Rodkina,S.A. Trans and positional ethylenic bonds in two dominant isomers of eicosapentaenoic acid from the freshwater sponge Baicalospongia bacillifera. Lipids, 40, 963-968 (2005).
  • Ismail,A.A., Nicodemo,A., Sedman,J., van de Voort,F.R. and Holzbaur,I.E. Infrared spectroscopy of lipids: principles and applications. In: 'Spectral Properties of Lipids', pp. 235-269 (edited by R.J. Hamilton & J. Cast, Sheffield Academic Press) (1998).
  • Jensen, N., Lam,K., Cody,R.B. and Tamura,J. Evidence for distinction of cis and trans isomers of mono-unsaturated fatty acids by FAB-MS. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 4, 239-241 (1990).
  • Ji, H., Voinov,V.G., Deinzer,M.L. and Barofsky,D.F. Distinguishing between cis/trans isomers of monounsaturated fatty acids by FAB MS. Anal. Chem., 79, 1519-1522 (2007).
  • Jiang, H.L., Kruger,N., Lahiri,D.R., Wang,D.R., Vatele,J.M. and Balazy,M. Nitrogen dioxide induces cis-trans-isomerization of arachidonic acid within cellular phospholipids - Detection of trans-arachidonic acids in vivo. J. Biol. Chem., 274, 16235-16241 (1999).
  • Juaneda, P. Utilisation of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography as an alternative to silver-ion chromatography for the separation of cis- and trans-C18:1 fatty acid isomers. J. Chromatogr. A, 954, 285-289 (2002).
  • Juaneda, P., Ledoux,M. and Sebedio,J.-L. Analytical methods for determination of trans fatty acid content in food. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 109, 901-917 (2007).
  • Kraffe, E., Grall,J., Palacios,E., Guerra,C., Soudant,P. and Marty,Y. Occurrence of the cis-4,7,10, trans-13-22:4 fatty acid in the family Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Lipids, 45, 437-444 (2010).
  • Kraft, J., Kramer,J.K.G., Schoene,F., Chambers,J.R. and Jahreis,G. Extensive analysis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, trans-18:1 isomers, and plasmalogenic lipids in different retail beef types. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56, 4775-4782 (2008).
  • Kramer, J.K.G., Cruz-Hernandez, C., Deng, Z.Y., Zhou, J.Q., Jahreis, G. and Dugan, M.E.R. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in synthetic and animal products. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 1137S-1145S (2004).
  • Kramer, J.K.G., Fellner,V., Dugan,M.E.R., Sauer,F.D., Mossoba,M.M. and Yurawecz,M.P. Evaluating acid and base catalysts in the methylation of milk and rumen fatty acids with special emphasis on conjugated dienes and total trans fatty acids. Lipids, 32, 1219-1228 (1997).
  • Kramer, J.K.G., Hernandez,M., Cruz-Hernandez,C., Kraft,J. and Dugan,M.E.R. Combining results of two GC separations partly achieves determination of all cis and trans 16:1, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 except CLA isomers of milk fat as demonstrated using Ag-ion SPE fractionation. Lipids, 43, 259-273 (2008).
  • Lambelet, P., Grandgirard,A., Gregoire,S., Juaneda,P., Sebedio,J.L. and Bertoli,C. Formation of modified fatty acids and oxyphytosterols during refining of low erucic acid rapeseed oil. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 4284-4290 (2003).
  • Lamberto, M. and Ackman,R.G. Confirmation by GC/MS of two unusual trans-3-monoethylenic fatty acids from the Nova Scotian seaweeds Palmaria palmata and Choridrus crispus. Lipids, 29, 441-444 (1994).
  • Laverroux, S., Glasser,F., Gillet,M., Joly,C. and Doreau,M. Isomerization of vaccenic acid to cis and trans C18:1 isomers during biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Lipids, 46, 843-850 (2011).
  • Le Quere, J.-L. GC-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in the analysis of fatty acids. In: New Trends in Lipid and Lipoprotein Analyses, pp. 232-241 (ed. J.-L. Sebedio and E.G. Perkins, AOCS Press, Champaign, USA) (1995).
  • Ledoux, M., Laloux,L. and Wolff,R,L, Analytical methods for determination of trans-C18 fatty acid isomers in milk fat. A review. Analusis, 28, 402-412 (2000).
  • Leth, T. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters. Z. Lebensm.-Unters. Forsch., 205, 111-115 (1997).
  • Li, A., Ha, Y.M., Wang, F., Li, W.M. and Li, Q.P. Determination of thermally induced trans-fatty acids in soybean oil by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 60, 10709-10713 (2012).
  • Li, C.M., Zhang, Y.B., Li, S.A., Wang, G.H., Xu, C., Deng, Y.Y. and Wang, S. Mechanism of formation of trans fatty acids under heating conditions in triolein. J. Agric. Food Chem., 61, 10392-10397 (2013).
  • Li, H. , van de Voort,F.R., Sedman,J. and Ismail,A.A. Rapid determination of cis and trans content, iodine value, and saponification number of edible oils by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 76, 491-497 (1999).
  • Li, H., van de Voort,F.R., Ismail,A.A., Sedman,J. and Cox,R. Trans determination of edible oils by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77, 1061-1067 (2000).
  • Lie Ken Jie, M.S.F., Lam,C.C., Pasha,M.K., Stefanov,K.L. and Marekov,I. C-13 NMR spectroscopic analysis of the triacylglycerol composition of some margarines. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73, 1011-1017 (1996).
  • Liu, W., Yin,H.Y., Akazawa,Y.O., Yoshida,Y., Niki,E. and Porter,N.A. Ex vivo oxidation in tissue and plasma assays of hydroxyoctadecadienoates: Z,E/E,E stereoisomer ratios. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 23, 986-995 (2010).
  • Lykakis,I.N., Ferreri,C., Grabovskiy,S.A. and Chatgilialoglu,C. Separation of cis/trans geometrical fatty acid isomers by silver-exchanged zeolite Y. Tetrahedron, 66, 2203-2209 (2010).
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Updated February 5, 2014