Literature Survey

Silver ion HPLC of Lipids

 

Since the development of stable silver ion HPLC columns, based on ion-exchange media, in the mid-80s this methodology has been making an important contribution to many aspects of lipid analysis. I can recommend three review articles on the topic cited below in full (Nikolova-Damyanova (1992), Dobson, Christie & Nikolova-Damyanova (1995) and Nikolova-Damyanova (2003)).

The following references, which cover the years from 1987 onwards, were collected as part of our regular literature reviews for our own research purposes. We cannot claim to have covered the subject exhaustively, but we have done our best. References are listed alphabetically by the first author of a paper, but not necessarily chronologically by that author.

  • Adkisson,H.D., Risener,F.S., Zarrinkar,P.P., Walla,M.D., Christie,W.W. and Wuthier,R.E. Unique fatty acid composition of normal cartilage: discovery of high levels of n-9 eicosatrienoic acid and low levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. FASEB J., 5, 344-353 (1991).
  • Adlof,R.O. Recent advances in silver-ion HPLC utilizing acetonitrile in hexane as solvent: temperature effects on lipid elution orders/resolution. In: Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques and Applications. pp. 175-190 (ed: M.M. Mossoba, J.K.G. Kramer, J.T. Brenna and R.E. McDonald, AOCS Press, Champaign, USA) (2006).
  • Adlof,R.O. Analysis of triacylglycerol and fatty acid isomers by low-temperature silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography with acetonitrile in hexane as solvent: Limitations of the methodology. J. Chromatogr. A, 1148, 256-259 (2007).
  • Adlof,R.O. Analysis of triacylglycerol positional isomers by silver ion HPLC. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 18, 105-107 (1995).
  • Adlof,R.O. Separation of conjugated linoleic acid-containing mono-, di-and triacylglycerols by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 103, 614-617 (2001).
  • Adlof,R.O. Separation of fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglycerols by Ag-HPLC: silver-ion and normal phase contributions to retention. In: New Techniques and Applications in Lipid Analysis, pp. 256-265 (edited by R.E. McDonald and M.M. Mossoba, AOCS Press, Champaign) (1997).
  • Adlof,R.O. Application of silver ion chromatography to the separation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers. In: Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 2., pp. 37-55 (edited by J.L. Sebedio, W.W. Christie & R.O. Adlof, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL.) (2003).
  • Adlof,R.O. Separation of cis and trans fatty acid methyl esters by silver ion HPLC. J. Chromatogr. A, 659, 95-99 (1994).
  • Adlof,R.O. Separation of conjugated linoleic acid methyl esters by silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography in semi-preparative mode. J. Chromatogr. A, 1033, 369-371 (2004).
  • Adlof,R.O. Analysis of fatty acid monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol positional isomers by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 741, 135-138 (1996).
  • Adlof,R.O. Normal-phase separation effects with lipids on a silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography column. J. Chromatogr. A, 764, 337-340 (1997).
  • Adlof,R.O. Fractionation of egg and soybean phosphatidylcholines by silver resin chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 538, 469-473 (1991).
  • Adlof,R.O. and Emken,E.A. Silver ion high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of fatty acid methyl esters labeled with deuterium atoms on double bonds. J. Chromatogr. A, 685, 178-181 (1994).
  • Adlof,R. and Lamm,T. Fractionation of cis-and trans-oleic, linoleic, and conjugated linoleic fatty acid methyl esters by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 799, 329-332 (1998).
  • Adlof,R.O. and List,G.R. Synthesis and analysis of symmetrical and nonsymmetrical disaturated/monounsaturated triacylglycerols. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 2096-2099 (2003).
  • Adlof,R.O. and List,G.R. Analysis of triglyceride isomers by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography - Effect of column temperature on retention times. J. Chromatogr. A, 1046, 109-113 (2004).
  • Adlof,R.O., Copes,L.C. and Emken,E.A. Analysis of the monoenoic fatty acid distribution in hydrogenated vegetable oils by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 72, 571-574 (1995).
  • Adlof,R.O., Copes,L.C. and Walter,E.L. Changes in conjugated linoleic acid composition within samples obtained from a single source. Lipids, 36, 315-317 (2001).
  • Adlof,R.O., Menzel,A. and Dorovska-Taran,V. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched triacylglycerol mixtures by isocratic silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 953, 293-297 (2002).
  • Alvarez,J.G., Slomovic,B. and Ludmir,J. Analysis of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine in amniotic fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. B, 690, 338-342 (1997).
  • Andrikopoulos,N.K. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods in the analysis of triacylglycerol species and regiospecific isomers of oils and fats. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 42, 473-505 (2002).
  • Andrikopoulos,N.K. Triglyceride species compositions of common edible vegetable oils and methods used for their identification and quantification. Food Rev. Int., 18, 71-102 (2002).
  • Aponte,J.C., Dillon, J.T., Tarozo, R. and Huang, Y.S. Separation of unsaturated organic compounds using silver-thiolate chromatographic material. J. Chromatogr. A, 1240, 83-89 (2012).
  • Baillet,A., Corbeau,L., Rafidison,P. and Ferrier,D. Separation of isomeric compounds by reversed-phase HPLC using Ag+ complexation - application to cis-trans fatty acid methyl esters and retinoic acid photoisomers. J. Chromatogr. A, 634, 251-256 (1993).
  • Banni,S. and Martin,J.-C. Conjugated linoleic acid and metabolites. In: Trans Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, pp. 261-302 (edited by J.L. Sebedio and W.W. Christie, Oily Press, Dundee) (1998).
  • Bicanic,D., Mocnik,G., Franko,M., Niederlander,H.A.G., van de Bovenkamp,P. and Cozijnsen,J. Separation and direct detection of long chain fatty acids and their methyl esters by the non-aqueous reversed phase HPLC and silver ion chromatography, combined with CO laser pumped thermal lens spectrometry. Instrument. Sci. Technol., 34, 129-150 (2006).
  • Blomberg,L.G. and Demibuker,M. Analysis of triacylglycerols by argentation supercritical fluid chromatography. In: 'Developments in the Analysis of Lipids', pp. 42-58 (edited by J.H.P. Tyman and M.H. Gordon, Royal Soc. Chem., Cambridge) (1994).
  • Blomberg,L.G., Demirbuker,M. and Andersson,P.E. Argentation supercritical fluid chromatography for quantitative analysis of triacylglycerols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 70, 939-946 (1993).
  • Brechany,E.Y. and Christie,W.W. Identification of the unsaturated oxo fatty acids in cheese. J. Dairy Res., 61, 111-115 (1994).
  • Brechany,E.Y. and Christie,W.W. Identification of the saturated oxo fatty acids in cheese. J. Dairy Res., 59, 57-64 (1992).
  • Bruhl,L., Schulte,E. and Thier,H.-P. Fractionation of triglycerides in human milk using argentation and reversed-phase HPLC with a light-scattering detector. Fat Sci. Technol., 95, 370-376 (1993).
  • Bruhl,L., Schulte,E. and Thier,H.-P. Triglycerides with polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and in ingredients for infant formulas. Fat Sci. Technol., 96, 223-227 (1994).
  • Bruhl,L., Schulte,E. and Thier,H.-P. Composition and structures of triglycerides of human milk and some base components for infant milk formulas. Fat Sci. Technol., 96, 147-154 (1994).
  • Buchgraber,M. and Ulberth,F. Determination of trans octadecenoic acids by silver-ion chromatography-gas liquid chromatography: An intercomparison of methods. J. Ass. Off. Anal. Chem. Int., 84, 1490-1498 (2001).
  • Cagniant,D. Argentation chromatography - applications to the determination of olefins, lipids, and heteroatomic compounds. In: 'Complexation Chromatography', pp. 149-195 (edited by D. Cagniant, Marcel Dekker, New York) (1992).
  • Cao,Y., Gao,H.-L., Chen,J.-N., Chen,Z.-Y. and Yang,L. Identification and characterization of conjugated linolenic acid isomers by Ag+-HPLC and NMR. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 9004-9009 (2006).
  • Chandler,I.C. Determining the regioselectivity of immobilized lipases in triacylglycerol acidolysis reactions. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 78, 737-742 (2001).
  • Chen,S.-H. and Chuang,Y.-J. Analysis of fatty acids by column liquid chromatography. Anal. Chim. Acta, 465, 145-155 (2002).
  • Christie, W.W. The chromatographic analysis of lipids. In: 'The Lipid Handbook - 3rd edition', pp. 426-455 (edited by F.D. Gunstone, J.L. Harwood and A. Dijkstra, Chapman & Hall, London) (2007).
  • Christie, W.W. A stable silver-loaded column for the separation of lipids by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., Chromatogr. Commun., 10, 148-150 (1987).
  • Christie, W.W. Separation of molecular species of triacylglycerols by HPLC with a silver ion column. J. Chromatogr. A, 454, 273-284 (1988).
  • Christie, W.W. HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the analysis of fatty acids in 'Fats for the Future', pp. 335-344 (edited by R.C. Cambie, Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester). (1989).
  • Christie, W.W. Some recent advances in the chromatographic analysis of lipids. Analusis, 26, M34-M40 (1998).
  • Christie, W.W. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid - an overview. In: Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 2., pp. 1-12 (edited by J.L. Sebedio, W.W. Christie & R.O. Adlof, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL.) (2003).
  • Christie, W.W. Detectors for high-performance liquid chromatography of lipids with special reference to evaporative light-scattering detection. In: 'Advances in Lipid Methodology - One' (edited by W.W. Christie, Oily Press, Ayr), pp. 239-271 (1992).
  • Christie, W.W. Silver ion and chiral chromatography in the analysis of triacylglycerols. Prog. Lipid Res., 33, 9-18 (1994).
  • Christie, W.W. Fractionation of the triacylglycerols of evening primrose oil by HPLC in the silver ion mode. Fat Sci. Technol., 93, 65-66 (1991).
  • Christie, W.W. Recent developments in high-performance liquid and gas chromatography of lipids. Rev. Franc. Corps Gras, 38, 155-160 (1991).
  • Christie, W.W. Structural analysis of fatty acids. In: Advances in Lipid Methodology - Four, pp. 119-169 (edited by W.W. Christie, Oily Press, Dundee) (1997).
  • Christie, W.W. and Breckenridge,G.H.M. Separation of cis and trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids by HPLC in the silver ion mode. J. Chromatogr. A, 469, 261-269 (1989).
  • Christie, W.W. and Dobson,G. Formation of cyclic fatty acids during the frying process. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 102, 515-520 (2000).
  • Christie, W.W. and Han, X. Lipid Analysis - Isolation, Separation, Identification and Lipidomic Analysis (4th edition), 446 pages (Oily Press, Bridgwater, U.K. and Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, U.K.) (2010) - Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
  • Christie, W.W., Brechany,E.Y. and Shukla,V.K.S. Analysis of seed oils containing cyclopentenyl fatty acids by combined chromatographic procedures. Lipids, 24, 116-120 (1989).
  • Christie, W.W., Brechany,E.Y. and Stefanov,K. Silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the analysis of complex fatty acid mixtures: application to marine invertebrates. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 46, 127-136 (1988).
  • Christie, W.W., Brechany,E.Y., Marekov,I.N., Stefanov,K.L. and Andreev,S.N. The fatty acids of the sponge Hymeniacidon sanguinea from the Black Sea. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 109, 245-252 (1994).
  • Christie, W.W., Brechany,E.Y., Sebedio,J.L. and Le Quere,J.L. Silver ion chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the structural analysis of cyclic monoenoic acids formed in frying oils. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 66, 143-153 (1993).
  • Christie, W.W., Brechany,E.Y., Stefanov,K. and Popov,S. The fatty acids of the sponge Dysidea fragilis from the Black Sea. Lipids, 27, 640-644 (1992).
  • Christie, W.W., Dobson,G. and Adlof,R.O. A practical guide to the isolation, analysis and identification of conjugated linoleic acid. Lipids, 42, 1073-1084 (2007).
  • Christie, W.W.,Sébédio,J.L. and Juanéda,P. A practical guide to the analysis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). INFORM, 12, 147-152 (2001).
  • Corl, B.A., Baumgard,L.H., Griinari,J.M., Delmonte,P., Morehouse,K.M., Yuraweczc,M.P. and Bauman,D.E. Trans-7,cis-9 CLA is synthesized endogenously by delta(9)-desaturase in dairy cows. Lipids, 37, 681-688 (2002).
  • Correa, R.A., Ferraz,V., Medvedovici,A., Sandra,P., Cerne,K. and David,F. Positional and configurational separation of fatty acid isomers by micro reversed-phase liquid chromatography with an Ag+-containing mobile phase. J. Chromatogr. A, 848, 83-93 (1999).
  • Cossignani, L., Damiani,E., Gabrielli,L., Montesano,D., Simonetti,M.S., Petrosino,T., Ventura,E., Marini,E. and Damiani,P. Structural characteristics of the triacylglycerol fraction from the seed fat of Mangifera indica L. Ital. J. Food Sci., 20, 263-271 (2008).
  • Cossignani, L., Giua, L., Lombardi, G., Simonetti, M.S., Damiani, P. and Blasi, F. Analysis of CLA isomer distribution in nutritional supplements by single column silver-ion HPLC. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 90, 327-335 (2013).
  • Cossignani, L., Simonetti,M.S., Neri,A. and Damiani,P. Structural analysis of triacylglycerol fraction and some of its sub-fractions from an eicosapentaenoic acid docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplement. Z. Lebensm.-Unters. Forsch., 208, 203-207 (1999).
  • Cross, R..F, Ostrowska,E., Muralitharan,H. and Dunshea,F.R. Mixed mode retention and the use of competing acid for the Ag+-HPLC analysis of underivatized conjugated linoleic acids. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 23, 317-323 (2000).
  • Cross, R.F. and Widman,H.A. Ag+ HPLC of conjugated linoleic acids on a silica-based stationary phase. Part I: Introduction, experimental, and retention patterns. J. Sep. Sci., 25, 239-244 (2002).
  • Cross, R.F. and Widman,H.A. Ag+ HPLC of conjugated linoleic acids on a silica-based stationary phase. Part II: Resolution and extrapolations. J. Sep. Sci., 25, 245-251 (2002).
  • Cross, R.F. and Zackari,H. Ag+HPLC of conjugated linoleic acids on a silica-based stationary phase. Part IV: A reference stationary phase and retention mechanisms. J. Sep. Sci., 26, 480-488 (2003).
  • Cross, R.F. and Zackari,H. Ag+HPLC of conjugated linoleic acids on a silica-based stationary phase. Part III: Model compounds. J. Sep. Sci., 25, 897-903 (2002).
  • Cruz-Hernandez,C., Deng,Z.Y., Zhou,J.Q., Hill,A.R., Yurawecz,M.P., Delmonte,P., Mossoba,M.M., Dugan,M.E.R. and Kramer,J.K.G. Methods for analysis of conjugated linoleic acids and trans-18:1 isomers in dairy fats by using a combination of gas chromatography, silver-ion thin-layer chromatography/gas chromatography, and silver-ion liquid chromatography. J. Ass. Off. Anal. Chem. Int., 87, 545-562 (2004).
  • Cvacka,J., Hovorka,O., Jiros,P., Kindl,J., Stransky,K. and Valterova,I. Analysis of triacylglycerols in fat body of bumblebees by chromatographic methods. J. Chromatogr. A, 1101, 226-237 (2006).
  • Damiani,P., Cossignani,L., Simonetti,M.S., Blasi,F., Petrosino,T. and Neri,A. Identification of cocoa butter equivalents added to cocoa butter. III. Stereospecific analysis of triacylglycerol fraction and some its subfraction. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 223, 645-648 (2006).
  • Damyanova,B., Momtchilova,S., Bakalova,S., Zuilhof,H., Christie,W.W. and Kaneti,J. Computational probes into the conceptual basis of silver ion chromatography: I. Silver(I) ion complexes of unsaturated fatty acids and esters. J. Mol. Struct. - THEOCHEM., 589-590, 239-249 (2002).
  • Dannenberger,D., Nuernberg,K. and Nuernberg,G. Diet-dependent occurrence of CLA isomers in rumen and duodenal digesta of slaughtered bulls. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 111, 553-562 (2009).
  • de Koning,S., Janssen,H.G., van Deursen,M. and Brinkman,U.A.T. Automated on-line comprehensive two-dimensional LC x GC and LC x GC-ToF MS: Instrument design and application to edible oil and fat analysis. J. Sep. Sci., 27, 397-409 (2004).
  • de la Fuente,M.A., Luna.P. and Juarez,M. Chromatographic techniques to determine conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Trends Anal. Chem., 25, 917-926 (2006).
  • Delmonte,P., Fardin-Kia, A.R., Kramer, J.K.G., Mossoba, M.M., Sidisky, L., Tyburczy, C. and Rader, J.I. Evaluation of highly polar ionic liquid gas chromatographic column for the determination of the fatty acids in milk fat. J. Chromatogr. A, 1233, 137-146 (2012).
  • Delmonte,P., Hu,Q., Kia,A.R.F. and Rader,J.I. Preparation, chromatographic separation and relative retention times of cis/trans heptadecaenoic (17:1) fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. A, 1214, 30-36 (2008).
  • Delmonte,P., Kramer,J.K.G. and Yurawecz,M.P. Analysis of trans-18:1 fatty acids by silver ion HPLC. In: Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques and Applications. pp. 191-203 (ed: M.M. Mossoba, J.K.G. Kramer, J.T. Brenna and R.E. McDonald, AOCS Press, Champaign, USA) (2006).
  • Delmonte,P., Kataoka,A., Corl,B.A., Bauman,D.E. and Yurawecz,M.P. Relative retention order of all isomers of cis/trans conjugated linoleic acid FAME from the 6,8- to 13,15-positions using silver ion HPLC with two elution systems. Lipids, 40, 509-514 (2005).
  • Delmonte,P., Roach,J.A.G., Mossoba,M.M., Morehouse,K.M., Lehmann,L. and Yurawecz,M.P. Synthesis and isolation of trans-7,cis-9 octadecadienoic acid and other CLA isomers by base conjugation of partially hydrogenated gamma-linolenic acid. Lipids, 38, 579-583 (2003).
  • Delmonte,P., Yurawecz,M.P., Mossoba,M.M., Cruz-Hernandez,C. and Kramer,J.K.G. Improved identification of conjugated linoleic acid isomers using silver-ion HPLC separations. J. Ass. Off. Anal. Chem. Int., 87, 563-568 (2004).
  • Demirbuker, M. and Blomberg,L.G. Separation of triacylglycerols by supercritical-fluid argentation chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 550, 765-769 (1991).
  • Demirbuker, M. and Blomberg,L.G. Group separation of triacylglycerols on micropacked argentation columns using supercritical media as mobile phases. J. Chromatogr. Sci., 28, 67-72 (1990).
  • Demirbuker, M., Blomberg,L.G., Olsson,N.U., Bergqvist,M., Herslof,B.G. and Jacobs,F.A. Characterization of triacylglycerols in the seeds of Aquilegia vulgaris by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Lipids, 27, 436-441 (1992).
  • Demirbuker, M., Hagglund,I. and Blomberg,L.G. Separation of lipids by packed fused silica capillary SFC: selectivity of some stationary phases. In:: 'Contemporary Lipid Analysis, 2nd Symposium Proceedings', pp. 30-47 (edited by N.U. Olsson & B.G. Herslof, LipidTeknik, Stockholm) (1992).
  • Demirbuker, M., Hagglund,I. and Blomberg,L.G. Separation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by packed capillary supercritical fluid chromatography - comparison of different column packings. J. Chromatogr. A, 605, 263-268 (1992).
  • Denev, R.V., Kuzmanova,I.S., Momchilova,SM. and Nikolova-Damyanova,B.M. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae). J. AOAC Int., 94, 4-8 (2011).
  • Dermaux, A., Medvedovici,A., Ksir,M., VanHove,E., Talbi,M. and Sandra,P. Elucidation of the triglycerides in fish oil by packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography fractionation followed by capillary electrochromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry. J. Microcolumn Sep., 11, 451-459 (1999).
  • Destaillats, F., Golay,P.-A., Joffre,F., de Wispelaere,M., Hug,B., Giuffrida,., Fauconnot,L. and Dionisi,F. Comparison of available analytical methods to measure trans-octadecenoic acid isomeric profile and content by gas-liquid chromatography in milk fat. J. Chromatogr. A, 1145, 222-228 (2007).
  • Dillon, J.T., Aponte, J.C., Tarozo, R. and Huang, Y.S. Efficient liquid chromatographic analysis of mono-, di-, and triglycerols using silver thiolate stationary phase. J. Chromatogr. A, 1240, 90-95 (2012).
  • Dillon, J.T., Aponte, J.C., Tarozo, R. and Huang, Y.S. Purification of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil using silver-thiolate chromatographic material and high performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 1312, 18-25 (2013).
  • Dobson, G. and Sebedio,J.L. Monocyclic dienoic fatty acids formed from gamma-linolenic acid in heated evening primrose oil. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 97, 105-118 (1999).
  • Dobson, G., Christie,W.W. and Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Silver ion chromatography of lipids and fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. B, 671, 197-222 (1995).
  • Dobson, G., Christie,W.W. and Sebedio,J.L. The nature of cyclic fatty acids formed in heated vegetable oils. Grasas Aceites, 47, 26-33 (1996).
  • Dobson, G., Christie,W.W. and Sebedio,J.L. Monocyclic saturated fatty acids formed from oleic acid in heated sunflower oils. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 82, 101-110 (1996).
  • Dobson, G., Christie,W.W. and Sebedio,J.L. Saturated bicyclic fatty acids formed in heated sunflower oils. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 87, 137-147 (1997).
  • Dobson, G., Christie,W.W., Brechany,E.Y., Sebedio,J.L. and Le Quere,J.L. Silver ion chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the structural analysis of cyclic dienoic fatty acids formed in frying oils. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 75, 171-182 (1995).
  • Duchateau, G.S.M.J.E., Van Oosten,H.J. and Vasconcellos,M.A. Analysis of cis-fatty acid and trans-fatty acid isomers in hydrogenated and refined vegetable oils by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73, 275-282 (1996).
  • Dugan, M.E.R., Kramer,J.K.G., Robertson,W.M., Meadus,W.J., Aldai,N. and Rolland,D.C. Comparing subcutaneous adipose tissue in beef and muskox with emphasis on trans 18:1 and conjugated linoleic acids. Lipids, 42, 509-518 (2007).
  • Dugo, P., Favoino,O., Tranchida,P.Q., Dugo,G. and Mondello,L. Off-line coupling of non-aqueous reversed-phase and silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the characterization of rice oil triacylglycerol positional isomers. J. Chromatogr. A, 1041, 135-142 (2004).
  • Dugo, P., Kumm,T., Lo Presti,M., Chiofalo,B., Salimei,E., Fazio,A., Cotroneo,A. and Mondello,L. Determination of triacylglycerols in donkey milk by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci., 28, 1023-1030 (2005).
  • Dugo, P., Kumm,T., Chiofalo,B., Cotroneo,A. and Mondello,L. Separation of triacylglycerols in a complex lipidic matrix by using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection. J. Sep. Sci., 29, 1146-1154 (2006).
  • Dugo, P., Kumm,T., Crupi,M.L., Cotroneo,A. and Mondello,L. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection in the analyses of triacylglycerols in natural lipidic matrixes. J. Chromatogr. A, 1112, 269-275 (2006).
  • Dugo, P., Kumm,T., Fazio,A., Dugo,G. and Mondello,L. Determination of beef tallow in lard through a multidimensional off-line non-aqueous reversed phase-argentation LC method coupled to mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci., 29, 567-575 (2006).
  • Dunn, J.A., Holland,K.B. and Jezorek,J.R. Argentation liquid chromatography of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on a silver(I)-loaded mercaptopropyl silica gel stationary phase J. Chromatogr. A, 394, 375-381 (1987).
  • Elfman-Borjesson, I, van den Hark,S. and Harrod,M. Gradients of n-heptane and acetonitrile in silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography analyses of cis and trans bonds in lipids. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74, 1177-1180 (1997).
  • Eulitz, K., Yurawecz,M.P., Sehat,N., Fritsche,J., Roach,J.A.G., Mossoba,M.M., Kramer,J.K.G., Adlof,R.O. and Ku,Y. Preparation, separation, and confirmation of the eight geometrical cis/trans conjugated linoleic acid isomers 8,10-through 11,13-18:2. Lipids, 34, 873-877 (1999).
  • Evershed, R.P., Male,V. and Goad,L.J. Strategy for the analysis of steryl esters from plant and animal tissues. J. Chromatogr. A, 400, 187-205 (1987).
  • Fagan, P. and Wijesundera, C. Rapid isolation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids using monolithic high performance liquid chromatography columns. J. Sep. Sci., 36, 1743-1752 (2013).
  • Fardin-Kia, A.R., Delmonte, P., Kramer, J.K.G., Jahreis, G., Kuhnt, K., Santercole, V. and Rader, J.I. Separation of the fatty acids in menhaden oil as methyl esters with a highly polar ionic liquid gas chromatographic column and identification by time of flight mass spectrometry. Lipids, 48, 1279-1295 (2013).
  • Farkas, K., Noble,R.C. and Speake,B.K. Developmental changes in the levels of molecular species of triacylglycerol that contain docosahexaenoic acid in adipose tissue of the chick embryo. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 115, 1-6 (1996).
  • Fevrier, P., Binet,A., Dufosse,L., Gree,R. and Yvergnaux,F. Separation of glyceride positional isomers by silver ion chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 923, 53-57 (2001).
  • Fournier, V., Juaneda,P., Destaillats,F., Dionisi,F., Lambelet,P., Sebedio,J.L. and Berdeaux,O. Analysis of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid geometrical isomers formed during fish oil deodorization. J. Chromatogr. A, 1129, 21-28 (2006).
  • Friedel, H.D. and Matusch,R. Separation of non-polar sesquiterpene olefins from tolu balsam by HPLC: silver perchlorate impregnation of a prepacked preparative silica gel column. J. Chromatogr. A, 407, 343-348 (1987).
  • Fritsche, J., Fritsche,S., Solomon,M.B., Mossoba,M.M., Yurawecz,M.P., Morehouse,K. and Ku,Y. Quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in beef fat. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 102, 667-672 (2000).
  • Fritsche, J., Mossoba,M.M., Yurawecz,M.P., Roach,J.A.G., Sehat,N., Ku,Y. and Steinhart,H. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in human adipose tissue. Z. Lebensm.-Unters. Forsch., 205, 415-418 (1997).
  • Fritsche, J., Rickert,R., Steinhart,H., Yurawecz,M.P., Mossoba,M.M., Sehat,N., Roach,J.A.G., Kramer,J.K.G. and Ku,Y. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers: formation, analysis, amounts in foods, and dietary intake. Fett-Lipid, 101, 272-276 (1999).
  • Gorissen, L., Raes,K., Weckx,S., Dannenberger,D., Leroy,F., De Vuyst,L. and De Smet,S. Production of conjugated linoleic acid and conjugated linolenic acid isomers by Bifidobacterium species. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 87, 2257-2266 (2010).
  • Fritsche,J., Yurawecz,M..P, Pawlosky,R., Flanagan,V.P., Steinhart,H. and Ku,Y. Spectroscopic characterization of unusual conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. J. Sep. Sci., 24, 59-61 (2001).
  • Han,J.J., Iwasaki,Y. and Yamane,T. Use of isopropanol as a modifier in a hexane-acetonitrile based mobile phase for the silver ion HPLC separation of positional isomers of triacylglycerols containing long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 22, 357-361 (1999).
  • Han,J.J., Iwasaki,Y. and Yamane,T. Monitoring of lipase-catalyzed transesterification between eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester and tricaprylin by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography and high-temperature gas chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 76, 31-39 (1999).
  • Harfmann,R.G., Julka,S. and Cortes,H.J. Instability of hexane-acetonitrile mobile phases used for the chromatographic analysis of triacylglycerides. J. Sep. Sci., 31, 915-920 (2008).
  • Hauff,S., Rilfors,L., Hottinger,G. and Vetter,W. Structure and absolute configuration of an unsaturated anteiso fatty acid from Bacillus megaterium. J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 1683-1687 (2010).
  • Heron,S. and Tchapla,A. Comparison of the responses of triacylglycerols with an evaporative visible light scattering detector used in conventional, micro and capillary liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 848, 95-104 (1999).
  • Hierro,M.T.G., Robertson,G., Christie,W.W. and Joh,Y.-G. The fatty acid composition of the seeds of Ginkgo biloba. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73, 575-579 (1996).
  • Higashidate,S., Yamauchi,Y. and Saito,M., Enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid esters from esterified fish oil by programmed extraction - elution with supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Chromatogr. A, 515, 295-303 (1990).
  • Holcapek, M., Dvorakova,H., Lisa,M., Giron,A.J., Sandra,P. and Cvacka,J. Regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols using silver-ion liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry: Comparison of five different mass analyzers. J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 8186-8194 (2010).
  • Honkanen, A.M., Griinari, J.M., Vanhatalo, A., Ahvenjarvi, S., Toivonen, V. and Shingfield, K.J. Characterization of the disappearance and formation of biohydrogenation intermediates during incubations of linoleic acid with rumen fluid in vitro. J. Dairy Sci., 95, 1376-1394 (2012).
  • Hoving, E.B., Muskiet,F.A. and Christie,W.W. Separation of cholesterol esters by silver ion chromatography using HPLC or solid-phase extraction columns packed with a bonded sulphonic acid phase. J. Chromatogr. B, 565, 103-110 (1991).
  • Hu, J., Wei, F., Dong, X.Y., Lv, X., Jiang, M.L., Li, G.M. and Chen, H. Characterization and quantification of triacylglycerols in peanut oil by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci., 36, 288-300 (2013).
  • Igarashi, M. and Miyazawa,T. Preparation and fractionation of conjugated trienes from alpha-linolenic acid and their growth-inhibitory effects on human tumor cells and fibroblasts. Lipids, 40, 109-113 (2005).
  • Imbs, A.B. and Rodkina,S.A. Trans and positional ethylenic bonds in two dominant isomers of eicosapentaenoic acid from the freshwater sponge Baicalospongia bacillifera. Lipids, 40, 963-968 (2005).
  • Imbs, A.B. and Rodkina,S.A. Isolation of 2-methyl branched unsaturated very long fatty acids from marine sponge Halichondria panicea and identification of them by GC-MS and NMR. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 129, 173-181 (2004).
  • Itabashi, Y., Myher,J.J. and Kuksis,A. High-performance liquid chromatographic resolution of reverse isomers of 1,2-diacyl-rac-glycerols as 3,5-dinitrophenylurethanes. J. Chromatogr. A, 893, 261-279 (2000).
  • Janssen,H.G., Steenbergen,H. and de Koning,S. The role of comprehensive chromatography in the characterization of edible oils and fats. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 111, 1171-1184 (2009).
  • Jaudszus,A., Kuhnt,K., Rohrer,C. and Jahreis,G. CLA TAG rich in cis-9,trans-11-CLA is stable beyond 2 years of proper storage. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 112, 1393-1396 (2010).
  • Jeffrey,B.S.J. Silver-complexation liquid chromatography for fast, high-resolution separation of triacylglycerols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 68, 289-293 (1991).
  • Joh,Y.-G., Brechany,E.Y. and Christie,W.W. Characterization of wax esters in the roe oil of amber fish, Seriola aureovittata. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 72, 707-713 (1995).
  • Joh,Y.G., Elenkov,I.J., Stefanov,K.L., Popov,S.S., Dobson,G. and Christie,W.W. Novel di-, tri-, and tetraenoic fatty acids with bis-methylene-interrupted double-bond systems from the sponge Haliclona cinerea. Lipids, 32, 13-17 (1997).
  • Joh,Y.-G., Kim,S.-J. and Christie,W.W. The structure of the triacylglycerols containing punicic acid in the seed oil of Trichosanthes kirilowii. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 72, 1037-1042 (1995).
  • Juaneda, P. and Sebedio,J.L. Combined silver-ion and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and identification of C-20 metabolites of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in rat liver lipids. J. Chromatogr. B, 724, 213-219 (1999).
  • Juaneda, P., Cordier,O., Gregoire,S. and Sebedio,J.L. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in heat-treated vegetable oils. Oleag. Corps Gras Lipides, 8, 94-97 (2001).
  • Juaneda, P., Sebedio,J.L. and Christie,W.W. Complete separation of the geometrical isomers of linolenic acid by HPLC with a silver ion column. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 17, 321-324 (1994).
  • Jung, M.Y. and Jung,M.O. Identification of conjugated linoleic acids in hydrogenated soybean oil by silver ion-impregnated HPLC and gas chromatography-ion impacted mass spectrometry of their 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 6188-6193 (2002).
  • Kadivar, S., De Clercq, N., Nusantoro, B.P., Le, T.T. and Dewettinck, K. Development of an offline bidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of stereospecific triacylglycerols in cocoa butter equivalents. J. Agric. Food Chem., 61, 7896-7903 (2013).
  • Kallio, H., Korkiasaari,K., Sjovall,O., Suomella,J.P. and Linderborg,K. The regiospecific position of 18:1 cis and trans monoenoic fatty acids in milk fat triacylglycerols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 83, 407-413 (2006).
  • Kalo, P. Regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols. Lipid Technology, 25, 230-234 (2013).
  • Kalo, P.J. and Kemppinen, A. Regiospecific analysis of TAGs using chromatography, MS, and chromatography-MS. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 114, 399-411 (2012).
  • Kemppinen, A. and Kalo,P. Analysis of sn-1(3)-and sn-2-short-chain acyl isomers of triacylglycerols in butteroil by gas-liquid chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75, 91-100 (1998).
  • Kemppinen ,A. and Kalo,P. Quantification of triacylglycerols in butterfat by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry using molar correction factors for [M-RCOO](+) ions. J. Chromatogr. A, 1134, 260-283 (2006).
  • Kim, S.J., Woo,H.K., Seo,M.Y. and Joh,Y.G. Analysis of fatty acids in puffer fish liver oils by combined chromatographic procedures - Resolution of fatty acid methyl esters by Ag+-chromatography and their identification by GC-MS using 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 12, 326-336 (2003).
  • Kinami, T., Horii,N, Narayan,B., Arato,S., Hosokawa,M., Miyashita,K., Negishi,H., Ikuina,J., Noda,R. and Shirasawa,S. Occurrence of conjugated linolenic acids in purified soybean oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 84, 23-29 (2007).
  • Kinkela, T. and Bezard,J. Characterization of the triglyceridic structure of safou pulp oil (Dacryodes edulis). Rev. Franc. Corps Gras, 40, 373-382 (1993).
  • Kozubek, A. and Tyman,J.H.P. Cereal grain resorcinolic lipids: mono and dienoic homologues are present in rye grains. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 78, 29-35 (1995).
  • Kramer, J.K.G., Cruz-Hernandez,C., Deng,Z.Y., Zhou,J.Q., Jahreis,G. and Dugan,M.E.R. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in synthetic and animal products. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 1137S-1145S (2004).
  • Kramer, J.K.G., Sehat,N., Dugan,M.E.R., Mossoba,M.M., Yurawecz,M.P., Roach,J.A.G., Eulitz,K., Aalhus,J.L., Schaefer,A.L. and Ku,Y. Distributions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in tissue lipid classes of pigs fed a commercial CLA mixture determined by gas chromatography and silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography. Lipids, 33, 549-558 (1998).
  • Kramer, J.K.G., Sehat,N., Fritsche,J., Mossoba,M.M., Eulitz,K., Yurawecz,M.P. and Ku,Y. Separation of conjugated fatty acid isomers. In: Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol. 1. (ed. M.P. Yurawecz, M.M. Mossoba, J.K.G. Kramer, M.W. Pariza and G.J. Nelson, AOCS Press, Champaign) pp. 83-109 (1999).
  • Laakso, P. and Christie,W.W. Combination of silver ion and reversed-phase HPLC in the fractionation of herring oil triacylglycerols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 68, 213-223 (1991).
  • Laakso, P. and Kallio,H. Triacylglycerols of winter butter fat containing configurational isomers of monoenoic fatty acyl residues. 2. Saturated dimonoenoic triacylglycerols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 70, 1173-1176 (1993).
  • Laakso, P. and Kallio,H. Triacylglycerols of winter butter fat containing configurational isomers of monoenoic fatty acyl residues. 1. Disaturated monoenoic triacylglycerols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 70, 1161-1171 (1993).
  • Laakso, P. and Voutilainen,P. Analysis of triacylglycerols by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Lipids, 31, 1311-1322 (1996).
  • Laakso, P., Christie,W.W. and Pettersen,B. Analysis of North Atlantic and Baltic fish oil triacylglycerols by HPLC with a silver ion column. Lipids, 25, 284-291 (1990).
  • Laakso, P., Nurmela,V.V. and Homer,D.R. Composition of the triacylglycerols of butter fat and its fractions obtained by an industrial melt crystallization process. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40, 2472-2482 (1992).
  • Lassner, M.W., Levering,C.K., Davies,H.M. and Knutzon,D.S. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from meadowfoam mediates insertion of erucic acid at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol in transgenic rapeseed oil. Plant Physiol., 109, 1389-1394 (1995).
  • Ledoux, M., Laloux,L. and Wolff,R,L, Analytical methods for determination of trans-C18 fatty acid isomers in milk fat. A review. Analusis, 28, 402-412 (2000).
  • Leskinen, H., Suomela,J.P., Pinta,J. and Kallio,H. Regioisomeric structure determination of alpha- and beta-linolenoyldilinoleoylglycerol in blackcurrant seed oil by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 80, 5788-5793 (2008).
  • Lima, E.S. and Abdalla,D.S.P. High-performance liquid chromatography of fatty acids in biological samples. Anal. Chim. Acta, 465 81-91 (2002).
  • Lisa, M., Denev, R. and Holcapek, M. Retention behavior of isomeric triacylglycerols in silver-ion HPLC: Effects of mobile phase composition and temperature. J. Sep. Sci., 36, 2888-2900 (2013).
  • Lísa, M., Netušilová,K., Franek,L., Dvoráková,H., Vrkoslav,V. and Holcapek,M. Characterization of fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition in animal fats using silver-ion and non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. J. Chromatogr. A., 1218, 7499-7510 (2011).
  • Lisa, M., Velinska,H. and Holcapek,M. Regioisomeric characterization of triacylglycerols using silver-ion HPLC/MS and randomization synthesis of standards. Anal. Chem., 81, 3903-3910 (2009).
  • Luna, P., Juarez,M. and de la Fuente,M.A. Gas chromatography and silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in free fatty acid form using sulphuric acid in methanol as catalyst. J. Chromatogr. A, 1204, 110-113 (2008).
  • Macher, M.B. and Holmqvist,A. Triacylglycerol analysis of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils by silver ion HPLC. J. Sep. Sci., 24, 179-185 (2001).
  • Marty, Y., Soudant,P., Perrotte,S., Moal,J., Dussauze,J. and Samain,J.F. Identification and occurrence of a novel cis-4,7,10,trans-13-docosatetraenoic fatty acid in the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). J. Chromatogr. A, 839, 119-127 (1999).
  • Mazzola, E.P., McMahon,J.B., McDonald,R.E., Yurawecz,M.P., Sehat,N. and Mossoba,M.M. C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectral confirmation of Delta 6- and Delta 7-trans-18:1 fatty acid methyl ester positional isomers. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74, 1335-1337 (1997).
  • McDonald, R.E. and Mossoba,M.M. Analysis of trans fatty acids. In: Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology, pp. 137-166 (edited by C.C. Akoh and D.B. Min, Dekker, N.Y.) (1997).
  • McGill, A.S. and Moffat,C.F. A study of the composition of fish liver and body oil triglycerides. Lipids, 27, 360-370 (1992).
  • Mjos, S.A. Properties of trans isomers of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid methyl esters on cyanopropyl stationary phases. J. Chromatogr. A, 1100, 185-192 (2005).
  • Mjos, S.A. and Pettersen,J. Determination of trans double bonds in polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from their electron impact mass spectra. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 105, 156-164 (2003).
  • Momchilova, S.M. and Nikolova-Damyanova,B.M. Separation of isomeric octadecenoic fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils as p-methoxyphenacyl esters using a single-column silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography (Ag-HPLC). Nature Protocols, 5, 473-478 (2010).
  • Momchilova, S.M. and Nikolova-Damyanova, B.M. Advances in silver ion chromatography for the analysis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols-2001 to 2011. Anal. Sci., 28, 837-844 (2012).
  • Momchilova, S. and Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Silver ion high performance liquid chromatography of polynuclear aromatic derivatives of positionally isomeric octadecenoic fatty acids. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 23, 1319-1330 (2000).
  • Momchilova, S. and Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Silver ion HPLC of p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids. III. Mobile phase effects on trans 6-, 9-, and 11-18:1. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 25, 615-625 (2002).
  • Momchilova, S. and Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Silver ion HPLC of p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids. II. Chain length vs. double bond position. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 23, 2317-2325 (2000).
  • Momchilova, S. and Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Stationary phases for silver ion chromatography of lipids: Preparation and properties. J. Sep. Sci., 26, 261-270 (2003).
  • Momchilova, S. and Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Silver ion HPLC of p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids. I. Mobile phase effects. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 23, 2303-2316 (2000).
  • Momchilova, S., Nikolova-Damyanova,B. and Christie,W.W. Silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography of isomeric cis-and trans-octadecenoic acids. Effect of the ester moiety and mobile phase composition. J. Chromatogr. A, 793, 275-282 (1998).
  • Mondello,L., Beccaria,M., Donato,P., Cacciola,F., Dugo,G. and Dugo,P. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection for the analysis of triacylglycerols in Borago officinalis. J. Sep. Sci., 34, 688-692 (2011).
  • Mondello,L., Tranchida,P.Q., Stanek,V., Jandera,P., Dugo,G. and Dugo,P. Silver-ion reversed-phase comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection in lipidic food analysis. J. Chromatogr. A, 1086, 91-98 (2005).
  • Mossoba,M.M., Kramer,J.K.G,. Yurawecz,M.P., Sehat,N., Roach,J.A.G., Eulitz,K., Fritsche,J., Dugan,M.E.R. and Ku,Y. Impact of novel methodologies on the analysis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Implications of CLA feeding studies. Fett-Lipid, 101, 235-243 (1999).
  • Mossoba,M.M., McDonald,R.E., Roach,J.A.G., Fingerhut,D.D., Yurawecz,M.P. and Sehat,N. Spectral confirmation of trans monounsaturated C18 fatty acid positional isomers. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74, 125-130 (1997).
  • Muller,A., Ringseis,R., Dusterloh,K., Gahler,S., Eder,K. and Steinhart,H. Detection of conjugated dienoic fatty acids in human vascular smooth muscle cells treated with conjugated linoleic acid. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1737, 145-151 (2005).
  • Muller,A., Dusterloh,K., Ringseis,R., Eder,K. and Steinhart,H. Development of an alternative eluent system for Ag+HPLC analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers. J. Sep. Sci., 29, 358-365 (2006).
  • Muller,A., Markus,M.B., Geyer,R., Ringseis,R., Eder,K. and Steinhart,H. Identification of conjugated linoleic acid elongation and beta-oxidation products by coupled silver-ion HPLC APPI-MS. J. Chromatogr. B, 837, 147-152 (2006).
  • Neff,W.E. and Byrdwell,W.C. Triacylglycerol analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry - Crepis alpina and Vernonia galamensis seed oils. J. Liqu. Chromatogr., 18, 4165-4181 (1995).
  • Neff,W.E., Adlof,R.O. and El-Agaimy,M. Silver ion HPLC of the triacylglycerols of Crepis alpina seed oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 71, 853-855 (1994).
  • Neff,W.E., Adlof,R.O., List,G.R. and El Agaimy,M. Analyses of vegetable oil triacylglycerols by silver ion high-performance liquid-chromatography with flame ionization detection. J. Liqu. Chromatogr., 17, 3951-3968 (1994).
  • Neri,A., Simonetti,M.S., Cossignani,L. and Damiani,P. Identification of cocoa butter equivalents added to cocoa butter by fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerol sub-fractions separated by Ag+-HPLC -II. Z. Lebensm.-Unters. Forsch., 208, 198-202 (1999).
  • Nieto,S., Cordoba,A.M., Sanhueza,J. and Valenzuela,A. Obtention of highly purified fractions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from sardine oil by silver-resin chromatography: A semi-preparative procedure. Grasas Aceites, 48, 197-199 (1997).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Retention of lipids in silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography: Facts and assumptions. J. Chromatogr. A, 1216, 1815-1824 (2009).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Silver ion chromatography and lipids. In: 'Advances in Lipid Methodology - One' (edited by W.W. Christie, Oily Press, Ayr), pp. 181-237 (1992).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B. Lipid analysis by silver ion chromatography. In: Advances in Lipid Methodology - Five, pp. 43-123 (ed. R.O. Adlof, Oily Press, Bridgwater) (2003).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B. and Momchilova,S. Silver ion HPLC for the analysis of positionally isomeric fatty acids. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 25, 1947-1965 (2002).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B., Christie,W.W. and Herslof,B. Silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography of esters of isomeric octadecenoic fatty acids with short-chain monounsaturated alcohols. J. Chromatogr. A, 693, 235-239 (1995).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B., Christie,W.W. and Herslof,B. Mechanistic aspects of fatty acid retention in silver ion chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 749, 47-54 (1996).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B., Christie,W.W. and Herslof,B. Retention properties of triacylglycerols on silver ion HPLC. J. Chromatogr. A, 694, 375-380 (1995).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B., Christie,W.W. and Herslof,B. The structure of the triacylglycerols of meadowfoam oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 67, 503-507 (1990).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B., Christie,W.W. and Herslof,B.G. High-performance liquid chromatography of fatty acid derivatives in the combined silver ion and reversed-phase modes. J. Chromatogr. A, 653, 15-23 (1993).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B., Dobson,G., Momchilova,S. and Christie,W.W. Cyclohexanediol fatty acid diesters as model compounds for mechanistic studies in silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 26, 1905-1912 (2003).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B., Herslof,B.G. and Christie,W.W. Silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography of derivatives of isomeric fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. A, 609, 133-140 (1992).
  • Nikolova-Damyanova,B., Momchilova,S. and Christie,W.W . Silver ion high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers, and other fatty acids, after conversion to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 23, 348-352 (2000).
  • Okamoto,M., Kakamu,H., Nobuhara,K. and Ishii,D. Effect of silver-modified silica on retention and selectivity in normal-phase liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 722, 81-85 (1996).
  • Ostrowska,E., Dunshea,F.R., Muralitharan,M. and Cross,R.F. Comparison of silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatographic quantification of free and methylated conjugated linoleic acids. Lipids, 35, 1147-1153 (2000).
  • Ozawa,I., Kim,M., Saito,K., Sugita,K., Baba,T., Moriyama,S. and Sugo,T. Purification of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester using a silver-ion-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane module. Biotechnol. Progr., 17, 893-896 (2001).
  • Pchelkin,V.P. Estimation of the equivalent lipophilicity of acyls in reversed-phase chromatography of unsaturated lipids in the presence of silver salts. Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 74, 625-631 (2000).
  • Petersson,B., Podlaha,O. and Jirskoghed,B. Triacylglycerol analysis of partially hydrogenated fats using HPLC. J. Chromatogr. A, 653, 25-35 (1993).
  • Phillips,K.M., Lugogo,R.D., Harris,R.F., Tarrago-Trani,M.T., Bailey,J.A. and Stewart,K.K. Direct determination of trans-octadecenoic acid in diet composites using a combination of silver ion high performance liquid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography. J. Food Lipids, 4, 173-188 (1997).
  • Powell,W.S. HPLC in the analysis of arachidonic acid metabolites. in Prostaglandins and Related Substances: a Practical Approach, pp. 75-98 (ed. C.Benedetto, R.G.McDonald-Gibson, S.Nigam and T.F.Slater, IRL Press, Oxford (1987).
  • Ratnayake,W.M.N. Overview of methods for the determination of trans fatty acids by gas chromatography, silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, silver-ion liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Ass. Off. Anal. Chem. Int., 87, 523-539 (2004).
  • Ratnayake,W.M.N. Analysis of trans fatty acids. In: Trans Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, pp. 115-161 (edited by J.L. Sebedio and W.W. Christie, Oily Press, Dundee) (1998).
  • Rego,O.A., Alves,S.P., Antunes,L.M.S., Rosa,H.J.D., Alfaia,C.F.M., Prates,J.A.M., Cabrita,A.R.J., Fonseca,A.J.M. and Bessa,R.J.B. Rumen biohydrogenation-derived fatty acids in milk fat from grazing dairy cows supplemented with rapeseed, sunflower, or linseed oils. J. Dairy Sci., 92, 4530-4540 (2009).
  • Rezanka,T. Analysis of very long chain fatty acids by HPLC and GC-MS with chemical ionization. LC-GC Int., 3 (10), 46-49 (1990).
  • Rezanka,T. Identification of very long polyenoic acids as picolinyl esters by Ag+ ion-exchange HPLC, reversed-phase HPLC and GC-MS. J. Chromatogr. A, 513, 344-348 (1990).
  • Rezanka,T. and Votruba,J. Chromatography of very long-chain fatty acids from animal and plant kingdoms. Anal. Chim. Acta, 465, 273-297 (2002).
  • Rickert,R. and Steinhart,H. Significance, analysis and occurrence of conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) in foods. Ernahrungs-Umschau 48, 4-9 (2001).
  • Rickert,R., Steinhart,H., Fritsche,J., Sehat,N., Yurawecz,M.P., Mossoba,M.M., Roach,J.A.G., Eulitz,K.., Ku,Y. and Kramer,J.K.G. Enhanced resolution of conjugated linoleic acid isomers by tandem-column silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 22, 144-148 (1999).
  • Roach,J.A.G., Mossoba,M.M., Yurawecz,M.P. and Kramer,J.K.G. Chromatographic separation and identification of conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Anal. Chim. Acta, 465, 207-226 (2002).
  • Rodriguez-Alcala,L.M., Braga,T., Malcata,F.X., Gomes,A. and Fontecha,J. Quantitative and qualitative determination of CLA produced by Bifidobacterium and lactic acid bacteria by combining spectrophotometric and Ag+-HPLC techniques. Food Chem., 125, 1373-1378 (2011).
  • Rodriguez-Castanedas,J.L., Pena-Egido,M.J., Garcia-Marino,M. and Garcia-Moreno,C.Quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid isomers by silver ion HPLC in ewe milk fat. J. Food Comp. Anal., 24, 1004-1008 (2011).
  • Ruan,.B., Gerst,N., Emmons,G.T., Shey,J. and Schroepfer,G.J. Sterol synthesis. A timely look at the capabilities of conventional and silver ion high performance liquid chromatography for the separation of C27 sterols related to cholesterol biosynthesis. J. Lipid Res., 38, 2615-2626 (1997).
  • Ruan,B., Shey,J., Gerst,N., Wilson,W.K. and Schroepfer,G.J. Silver ion high pressure liquid chromatography provides unprecedented separation of sterols: Application to the enzymatic formation of cholesta-5,8-dien-3-ol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93, 11603-11608 (1996).
  • Ruan,B., Tsai,J., Wilson,W.K. and Schroepfer,G.J. Aberrant pathways in the late stages of cholesterol biosynthesis in the rat: origin and metabolic fate of unsaturated sterols relevant to the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. J. Lipid Res., 41, 1772-1782 (2000).
  • Ruan,B., Wilson,W.K., Pang,J., Gerst,N., Pinkerton,F.D. Tsai,J., Kelley,R.I., Whitby,F.G., Milewicz,D.M., Garbern,J. and Schroepfer,G.J. Sterols in blood of normal and Smith-Lemli-Opitz subjects. J. Lipid Res., 42, 799-812 (2001).
  • Ruiz-Gutierrez,V. and Barron,L.J.R. Methods for the analysis of triacylglycerols. J. Chromatogr. B, 671, 133-168 (1995).
  • Ruiz-Rodriguez, A., Reglero,G. and Ibanez,E. Recent trends in the advanced analysis of bioactive fatty acids. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 51, 305-326 (2010).
  • Sandra, P., Medvedovici,A., Zhao,Y. and David,F. Characterization of triglycerides in vegetable oils by silver-ion packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and coordination ion spray. J. Chromatogr. A, 974, 231-241 (2002).
  • Santinelli, F., Damiani,P. and Christie,W.W. The triacylglycerol structure of olive oil determined by silver ion HPLC in combination with stereospecific analysis. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 69, 552-556 (1992).
  • Schuyl, P.J.W., de Joode,T., Vasconcellos,M.A. and Duchateau,G.S.M.J.E. Silver-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols. J. Chromatogr. A, 810, 53-61 (1998).
  • Sebedio, J.L. HPLC of fatty acids. In: 'CRC Handbook of Chromatography. Analysis of Lipids'. (ed. K.D. Mukherjee & N. Weber, CRC Press, Boca Raton), pp. 57-70 (1993).
  • Sehat, N., Kramer,J.K.G., Mossoba,M.M., Yurawecz,M.P., Roach,J.A.G., Eulitz,K., Morehouse,K.M. and Ku,Y. Identification of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in cheese by gas chromatography, silver ion high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectral reconstructed ion profiles. Comparison of chromatographic elution sequences. Lipids, 33, 963-971 (1998).
  • Sehat, N., Rickert,R., Mossoba,M.M., Kramer,J.K.G., Yurawecz,M.P., Roach,J.A.G., Adlof,R.O., Morehouse,K.M., Fritsche,J,. Eulitz,K.D., Steinhart,H. and Ku,Y. Improved separation of conjugated fatty acid methyl esters by silver ion-high-performance liquid chromatography. Lipids, 34, 407-413 (1999).
  • Sehat, N., Yurawecz,M.P., Roach,J.A.G., Mossoba,M.M., Kramer,J.K.G. and Ku,Y. Silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and identification of conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Lipids, 33, 217-221 (1998).
  • Serres, V., Benjelloun-Mlayah,B. and Delmas,M. Separation of polyunsaturated fatty acids on silver resins. 2. Adsorption-desorption phenomena. Rev. Franc. Corps Gras, 41, 3-8 (1994).
  • Shah, U., Proctor, A., Lay, J.O. and Moon, K. Determination of CLA trans,trans positional isomerism in CLA-rich soy oil by GC-MS and silver ion HPLC. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 89, 979-985 (2012).
  • Shan, H. and Wilson,W.K. Ternary gradient elution markedly improves silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography of unsaturated sterols. Steroids, 67, 917-923 (2002).
  • Shen, Y.F., Reese,S.L., Rossiter,B.E. and Lee,M.L. Silver-complexed dicyanobiphenyl-substituted polymethylsiloxane encapsulated particles for packed capillary column supercritical-fluid chromatography. J. Microcolumn Sep., 7, 279-287 (1995).
  • Simonetti, M.S., Damiani,F., Gabrielli,L., Cossignani,L., Blasi,F., Marini,F., Montesano,D., Maurizi,A., Ventura,E., Bosi,A. and Damiani,P. Characterization of triacylglycerols in Arbutus unedo L. seeds. Ital. J. Food Sci., 20, 49-56 (2008).
  • Smith, K.W., Perkins,J.M., Jeffrey,B.S.J. and Phillips,D.L. Separation of molecular species of cis- and trans-triacylglycerols in trans-hardened confectionery fats by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 71, 1219-1222 (1994).
  • Smith, S.B., Yang,A.J., Larsen,T.W. and Tume,R.K. Positional analysis of triacylglycerols from bovine adipose tissue lipids varying in degree of unsaturation. Lipids, 33, 197-207 (1998).
  • Spitzer, V. Screening analysis of unknown seed oils. Fett-Lipid, 101, 2-19 (1999).
  • Stefanov, K., Konaklieva,M., Brechany,E.Y. and Christie,W.W. Fatty acid composition of some algae from the Black Sea. Phytochemistry, 27, 3495-3497 (1988).
  • Stefanov, K., Seizova,K., Brechany,E.Y. and Christie,W.W. An unusual fatty acid composition for a fresh-water mussel, Unio tumidus, from Bulgaria. J. Nat. Prod., 55, 979-981 (1992).
  • Stefanov, K.L., Christie,W.W., Brechany,E.Y., Popov,S.S., and Andreev,S.N. Lipid composition of the red and green forms of Actinia equina from the Black Sea. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 103, 687-690 (1992).
  • Steinhart, H., Rickert,R. and Winkler,K. Identification and analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA). Eur. J. Med. Res., 8, 370-372 (2003).
  • Steinhart, H., Rickert,R. and Winkler,K. Trans fatty acids (TFA): Analysis, occurrence, intake and clinical relevance. Eur. J. Med. Res., 8, 358-362 (2003).
  • Steinhart, H., Winkler,K. and Rickert,R. Trans- and conjugated fatty acids in food - contents and analytical aspects. Oleag. Corps Gras Lipides, 8, 29-32 (2001).
  • Stolyhwo, A. and Rutkowska, J. An improved silver ion hplc combined with capillary gas chromatography of cis/trans fatty acids in alimentary fats and human milk fat. Food Anal. Methods, 6, 457-469 (2013).
  • Takano, S. and Kondoh,Y. Triglyceride analysis by combined argentation/nonaqueous reversed phase HPLC. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 64, 380-383 (1987).
  • Toschi, T.G., Capella,P., Holt,C. and Christie,W.W. A comparison of silver ion HPLC plus GC with Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy for the determination of trans double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids. J. Sci. Food Agric., 61, 261-266 (1993).
  • Toschi, T.G., Christie,W.W. and Conte,L.S. Capillary GC combined with HPLC for the analysis of olive oil triacylglycerols. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 16, 725-730 (1993).
  • Thurnhofer, S., Hottinger,G. and Vetter,W. Enantioselective determination of anteiso fatty acids in food samples. Anal. Chem., 79, 4696-4701 (2007).
  • van der Klift, E.J.C., Vivo-Truyols,G., Claassen,F.W., van Holthoon,F.L. and van Beek,T.A. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with ultraviolet, evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometric detection of triacylglycerols in corn oil. J. Chromatogr. A, 1178, 43-55 (2008).
  • Turini, M.E. and Martin,J.-C. Sources, functions and analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and its metabolites. In: 'Structured and Modified Lipids', pp. 251-284 (ed. F.D. Gunstone, Marcel Dekker, New York) (2001).
  • Turner, T., Rolland,D.C., Aldai,N. and Dugan,M.E.R. Rapid separation of cis9, trans11- and trans7,cis9-18:2 (CLA) isomers from ruminant tissue using a 30 m SLB-IL111 ionic column. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 91, 711-713 (2011).
  • Van Beek, T.A. and Subrtova,D. Factors involved in the high-pressure liquid-chromatographic separation of alkenes by means of argentation chromatography on ion-exchangers - overview of theory and new practical developments. Phytochem. Anal., 6, 1-19 (1995).
  • van der Klift, E.J.C., Vivo-Truyols,G., Claassen,F.W., van Holthoon,F.L. and van Beek,T.A. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with ultraviolet, evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometric detection of triacylglycerols in corn oil. J. Chromatogr. A, 1178, 43-55 (2008).
  • van Vliet, M.H., van Kempen,G.M.P., Reinders,M.J.T. and de Ridder,D. Computational estimation of the composition of fat/oil mixtures containing interesterifications from gas and liquid chromatography data. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 82, 707-716 (2005).
  • Villegas, C., Zhao,Y. and Curtis,J.M. Two methods for the separation of monounsaturated octadecenoic acid isomers. J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 775-784 (2010).
  • Viron, C., Andre,P., Dreux,M. and Lafosse,M. Evaluation of porous graphitic carbon as stationary phase for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by liquid chromatography. Chromatographia, 49, 137-141 (1999).
  • Vrkoslav, V., Urbanova, K., Hakova, M. and Cvacka, J. Analysis of wax esters by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1302, 105-110 (2013).
  • Wei, F., Ji, S.X., Hu, N., Lv, X., Dong, X.Y., Feng, Y.Q. and Chen, H. Online profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1312, 69-79 (2013).
  • Winkler, K. and Steinhart,H. Identification of conjugated isomers of linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in cheese. J. Sep. Sci., 24, 663-668 (2001).
  • Winter, C.H., Hoving,E.B. and Muskiet,F.A.J. Fatty acid composition of human milk triglyceride species. Possible consequences for optimal structures of infant formula triglycerides. J. Chromatogr. B, 616, 9-24 (1993).
  • Yang, L., Cao,Y. and Chen,Z.Y. Stability of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in egg yolk lipids during frying. Food Chem., 86, 531-535 (2004).
  • Yang, L., Huang,Y., James,A.E., Lam,L.W. and Chen,Z.Y. Differential incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers into egg yolk lipids. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 4941-4946 (2002).
  • Yang, L., Leung,L.K., Huang,Y. and Chen,Z.Y. Oxidative stability of conjugated linoleic acid isomers. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 3072-3076 (2000).
  • Yang, Q., Shi, X.Z., Gu, Q., Zhao, S.M., Shan, Y.H. and Xu, G.W. On-line two dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of triacylglycerides in peanut oil and mouse tissue. J. Chromatogr. B, 895, 48-55 (2012).
  • Yurawecz, M.P. and Morehouse,K.M. Silver-ion HPLC of conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 103, 609-613 (2001).
  • Yurawecz, M.P., Roach,J.A.G., Sehat,N., Mossoba,M.M., Kramer,J.K.G., Fritsche,J., Steinhart,H. and Ku,Y. A new conjugated linoleic acid isomer, 7 trans, 9 cis-octadecadienoic acid, in cow milk, cheese, beef and human milk and adipose tissue. Lipids, 33, 803-809 (1998).
  • Yurawecz, M.P., Sehat,N., Mossoba,M.M., Roach,J.A.G., Kramer,J.K.G. and Ku,Y. Variations in isomer distribution in commercially available conjugated linoleic acid. Fett-Lipid, 101, 277-282 (1999).
  • Zhang, F., Chu,X.G., Wang,X.J., Yang,M.L., Ling,Y., Sun,L., Li,X.Q. and Yong,W. Preparative argentation reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 1213, 176-180 (2008).

 

Updated: February 5, 2014<