Literature Survey

Electrophoresis of Lipids

A good number of papers have appeared in recent years describing electrophoretic separations of lipids. We have no personal experience of this technique, so cannot offer any reasoned comment on its value. Perhaps this list of references will stimulate further work.

The following references, covering the years 1990 to the present, were collected as part of our regular literature reviews for our own research purposes. We cannot claim to have covered the subject exhaustively, but we have done our best. References are listed alphabetically by the first author of a paper, but not necessarily chronologically by that author.

  • Abidi, S.L. Capillary electrochromatography of sterols and related steryl esters derived from vegetable oils. J. Chromatogr. A, 1059, 199-208 (2004).
  • Abidi, S.L., Thiam,S., and Warner,I.M. Elution behavior of unsaponifiable lipids with various capillary electrochromatographic stationary phases. J. Chromatogr. A, 949, 195-207 (2002).
  • Bang, D.Y., Lim, S. and Moon, M.H. Effect of ionization modifiers on the simultaneous analysis of all classes of phospholipids by nanoflow liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. J. Chromatogr. A, 1240, 69-76 (2012).
  • Barra, P.M.D., Castro, R.D.C., de Oliveira, P.L., Aued-Pimentel, S., da Silva, S.A. and de Oliveira, M.A.L. An alternative method for rapid quantitative analysis of majority cis-trans fatty acids by CZE. Food Res. Int., 33-41 (2013).
  • Basu, S.S., Dastgheib-Hosseini,S., Hoover, G., Li,Z.X. and Basu,S. Analysis of glycosphingolipids by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis using ceramide glycanase from Mercenaria mercenaria. Anal. Biochem., 222, 270-274 (1994).
  • Blomberg,L.G. and Andersson,P.E. Capillary electrophoresis for lipid analysis. INFORM, 5, 1030-1037 (1994).
  • Bohlin,M.E., Ohman,M., Hamberg,M. and Blomberg,L.G. Separation of conjugated trienoic fatty acid isomers by capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A, 985, 471-478 (2003).
  • Brando,T., Pardin,C., Prandi,J. and Puzo,G. Analysis of aminofluorescein-fatty acid derivatives by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection at the attomole level: application to mycobacterial fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. A, 973, 203-210 (2002).
  • Buchberger,W. and Winna,K. Determination of free fatty acids by capillary zone electrophoresis. Mikrochim. Acta, 122, 45-52 (1996).
  • Cesla,P., Blomberg,L., Hamberg,M. and Jandera,P. Characterization of anacardic acids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography and mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1115, 253-259 (2006).
  • Chadwick, R.R. and Hsieh,J.C. Separation of cis and trans double-bond isomers using capillary zone electrophoresis. Anal. Chem., 63, 2380-2383 (1991).
  • Chen, Y.L. and Xu,Y. Isolation and quantitation of plasma lysophosphatidic acids by solid-phase extraction and capillary electrophoresis. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 25, 843-855 (2002).
  • Chen, Y.L. and Xu,Y. J. Determination of lysophosphatidic acids by capillary electrophoresis with indirect ultraviolet detection. J. Chromatogr. B, 753, 355-363 (2001).
  • Chylinska-Ptak, M., Lau,S. and Stolyhwo,A. Separation of fatty acids, their methyl esters and triacylglycerols by non-aqueous electrochromatography and HPLC. Chemia Analityczna, 49, 855-867 (2004).
  • Cigic, I.K., Gucek,M., Zupancic-Kralj,L. and Pihlar,B. Separation of isomers of dienoic acids by electromigration techniques. J. Sep. Sci., 26, 1253-1258 (2003).
  • Collet, J. and Gareil,P. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography of long chain saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids with neutral micelles. Considerations regarding selectivity and resolution optimization. J. Chromatogr. A, 792, 165-177 (1997).
  • De Castro, P.M., Barra,M.M., Ribeiro,M.C.C., Aued-Pimentel,S., Da Silva,S.A. and De Oliveira,M.A.L. Total trans fatty acid analysis in spreadable cheese by capillary zone electrophoresis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58, 1403-1409 (2010).
  • de Oliveira, M.A.L., Micke,G.A., Bruns,R.E. and Tavares,M.F.M. Factorial design of electrolyte systems for the separation of fatty acids by capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A, 924, 533-539 (2001).
  • de Oliveira, M.A.L., Solis,V.E.S, Gioielli,L.A., Polakiewicz,B. and Tavares,M.F.M. Method development for the analysis of trans-fatty acids in hydrogenated oils by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 24, 1641-1647 (2003).
  • Dermaux, A., Sandra,P. and Ferraz,V. Analysis of free fatty acids and fatty acid phenacyl esters in vegetable oils and margarine by capillary electrochromatography. Electrophoresis, 20, 74-79 (1999).
  • Dermaux ,A., Sandra,P., Ksir,M. and Zarrouck,K.F.F. Analysis of the triglycerides and the free and derivatized fatty acids in fish oil by capillary electrochromatography. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 21, 545-548 (1998).
  • Drange,E. and Lundanes,E. Determination of long-chained fatty acids using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and indirect UV detection. J. Chromatogr. A, 771, 301-309 (1997).
  • Dzieciatkowska,M., Schweda,E.K.H., Moxon,E.R., Richards,J.C. and Li,J.J. Characterization of intact lipopolysaccharides from the Haemophilus influenzae strain RM 118 using electrophoresis-assisted open-tubular liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis, 29, 2171-2181 (2008).
  • Erim,F.B., Xu,X. and Kraak,J.C. Application of micellar electrokinetic chromatography and indirect UV detection for the analysis of fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. A, 694, 471-479 (1995).
  • Gallaher,D.L. and Johnson,M.E. Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis of fatty acids derivatized with a near-infrared fluorophore. Anal. Chem., 72, 2080-2086 (2000).
  • Gao,F., Dong,J., Li,W., Wang,T., Liao,H., Liao,Y.P. and Liu,H.W. Separation of phospholipids by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect ultraviolet detection. J. Chromatogr. A, 1130, 259-264 (2006).
  • Gao,F., Zhang,Z., Fu,X., Li,W., Wang,T. and Liu,H. Analysis of phospholipids by NACE with on-line ESI-MS. Electrophoresis, 28, 1418-1425 (2007).
  • Guo,B.Y., Wen,B., Shan, X.Q., Zhang,S.Z. and Lin,J.M. Separation and determination of phospholipids in plant seeds by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A, 1074, 205-213 (2005).
  • Haddadian,F., Shamsi,S.A., Schaeper,A.P. and Danielson,N.D. Capillary electrophoresis of phospholipids with indirect photometric detection. J. Chromatogr. Sci., 36, 395-400 (1998).
  • Heinig,K. and Henion,J. Determination of carnitine and acylcarnitines in biological samples by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B, 735, 171-188 (1999).
  • Ho,Y.-L., Chiu,J.-H., Wu,C.-Y. and Liu,M.-Y. Separation and determination of in vitro oxidized phospholipids by capillary zone electrophoresis. Anal. Biochem., 367, 210-218 (2007).
  • Ingvardsen,L., Michaelsen,S. and Soresen,H. Analysis of individual phospholipids by high-performance capillary electrophoresis. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 71, 183-188 (1994).
  • Jang,R., Kim,K.H., Zaidi,S.A., Cheong,W.J. and Moon,M.H. Analysis of phospholipids using an open-tubular capillary column with a monolithic layer of molecularly imprinted polymer in capillary electrochromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis, 32, 2167-2173 (2011).
  • Ju,D.D., Lai,C.C. and Her,G.R. Analysis of gangliosides by capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary zone electrophoresis electrospray mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 779, 195-203 (1997).
  • Jussila,M., Sundberg,S., Hopia,A., Makinen,M. and Riekkola,M.L. Separation of linoleic acid oxidation products by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 20, 111-117 (1999).
  • Kaheki,K.,Ikeda,S., Hirose,A. and Honda,S. An approach to ganglioside analysis by capillary electrophoresis. Kuromatogurafi, 14, 86-87 (1993).
  • Kiessig,S. and Vogt,C. Separation of carnitine and acylcarnitines by capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A, 781, 475-479 (1997).
  • Lerma-Garcia,M.J., Vergara-Barberan,M., Herrero-Martinez,J.M. and Simo-Alfonso,E.F. Acrylate ester-based monolithic columns for capillary electrochromatography separation of triacylglycerols in vegetable oils. J. Chromatogr. A, 1218, 7528-7533 (2011).
  • Li,J., Martin,A., Cox,A.D., Moxon,E.R., Richards,J.C. and Thibault,P. Mapping bacterial glycolipid complexity using capillary electrophoresis and electrospray mass spectrometry. Methods In Enzymology, 405, 369-397 (2005).
  • Li,J.J. and Richards,J.C. Application of capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry to the characterization of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 26, 35-50 (2007.00).
  • Liu,X.H., Cao,Y.S. and Chen,Y. Separation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 1095, 197-200 (2005).
  • Liu,Y. and Chan,K.-F.J. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of gangliosides. Electrophoresis, 12, 402-408 (1991).
  • Macfarlane,R.D., Bondarenko,P.V., Cockrill,S.L., Cruzado,I.D., Koss,W., McNeal,C.J., Spiekerman,A.M. and Watkins,L.K. Development of a lipoprotein profile using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis, 18, 1796-1806 (1997).
  • Mackenzie,S.L. and Taylor,D.C. Analysis of fatty acyl CoA esters by capillary electrophoresis. In: 'Plant Lipid Biochemistry, Structure and Utilization', pp. 27-29 (edited by P.J. Quinn & J.L. Harwood, Portland Press, London) (1990).
  • Mardones, C., Vizioli,N., Carducci,C., Rios,A. and ValcaÂrcel,M. Separation and determination of carnitine and acyl-carnitines by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. Anal. Chim. Acta, 382, 23-31 (1999).
  • Martma, K., Lindenburg, P.W., Habicht, K.L., Vulla, K., Resik, K., Kuut, G. and Shimmo, R. Potential of polyE-323 coated capillaries for capillary electrophoresis of lipids. J. Chromatogr. A, 1317, 193-198 (2013).
  • Melchior, D. and Gab,S. Simultaneous micellar electrokinetic chromatographic determination of isomeric fatty acid hydroperoxides and corresponding hydroxy fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. A, 894, 145-155 (2000).
  • Miksik, I. and Deyl,Z. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography of fatty acids as phenacyl esters. J. Chromatogr. A, 807, 111-119 (1998).
  • Mofaddel, N. and Desbene-Monvernay,A. Fatty acid analysis using capillary electrophoresis. Analusis, 27, 120-124 (1999).
  • Montealegre, C., Sanchez-Hernandez, L., Crego, A.L., Marina, M.L. Determination and characterization of glycerophospholipids in olive fruit and oil by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis with electrospray-mass spectrometric detection. J. Agric. Food Chem., 61, 1823-1832 (2013).
  • Mwongela, S.M., Lee,K., Sims,C.E. and Allbritton,N.L. Separation of fluorescent phosphatidyl inositol phosphates by CE. Electrophoresis, 28, 1235-1242 (2007).
  • Nalesso, A., Viel,G., Cecchetto,G., Frison,G. and Ferrara,S.D. Analysis of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol by NACE with on-line ESI-MS. Electrophoresis, 31, 1227-1233 (2010).
  • Ohman, M., Wan,H., Hamberg,M. and Blomberg,L.G. Separation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and parinaric fatty acid isomers by capillary electrophoresis. J. Sep. Sci., 25, 499-506 (2002).
  • Ohman, M., Wang,H., Hamberg,M. and Blomberg,L.G. Separation of divinyl ether fatty acid isomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Electrophoresis, 22, 1163-1169 (2001).
  • Otieno, A.C. and Mwongela,S.M. Capillary electrophoresis-based methods for the determination of lipids - A review. Anal. Chim. Acta, 624, 163-174 (2008).
  • Petersson, M.A., Hulthe,G. and Fogelqvist,E. New sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis to electrospray mass spectrometry evaluated by the analysis of fatty acids and prostaglandins. J. Chromatogr. A, 854, 141-154 (1999).
  • Purdy, G.E., Pacheco, S., Turk, J. and Hsu, F.F. Characterization of mycobacterial triacylglycerols and monomeromycolyl diacylglycerols from Mycobacterium smegmatis biofilm by electrospray ionization multiple-stage and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.,405, 7415-7426 (2013).
  • Qi, L.N., Danielson,N.D., Dai,Q. and Lee,R.M. Capillary electrophoresis of cardiolipin with on-line dye interaction and spectrophotometric detection. Electrophoresis, 24, 1680-1686 (2003).
  • Raith, K., Wolf,R., Wagner,J. and Neubert,R.H.H. Separation of phospholipids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 802, 185-188 (1998).
  • Roed, L., Lundanes,E. and Greibrokk,T. Temperature-programmed non-aqueous electrochromatographic separation of retinyl esters. J. Sep. Sci., 24, 435-443 (2001).
  • Roed, L., Lundanes,E. and Greibrokk,T. Nonaqueous electrochromatography on C-30 columns: Separation of retinyl esters. Electrophoresis, 20, 2373-2378 (1999).
  • Roldan-Assad, R. and Gareil,P. Capillary zone electrophoretic determination of C2-C18 linear saturated free fatty acids with indirect absorbency detection. J. Chromatogr. A, 708, 339-350 (1995).
  • Ruttinger, H.H. and Radschuweit,A. Determination of peroxides by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection. J. Chromatogr. A, 868, 127-134 (2000).
  • Sandra, P., Dermaux,A., Ferraz,V., Dittmann,M.M. and Rozing,G. Analysis of triglycerides by capillary electrochromatography. J. Microcolumn Sep., 9, 409-419 (1997).
  • Schmitz, O. and Gab,S. Separation of isomeric hydroperoxides of unsaturated fatty acids by capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A, 767, 249-253 (1997).
  • Schmitz, O. and Gab,S. Separation of unsaturated fatty acids and related isomeric hydroperoxides by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 781, 215-221 (1997).
  • Schmitz, O., Melchior,D., Schuhmann,W. and Gab,S. Postcolumn derivatisation for selective laser-induced fluorescence detection in micellar electrokinetic chromatography of fatty acid hydroperoxides. J. Chromatogr. A, 814, 261-265 (1998).
  • Schwarz, M.A., Raith,K. and Neubert,R.H.H. Characterization of micelles by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 19, 2145-2150 (1998).
  • Shore, V.G. Non-denaturing electrophoresis of lipoproteins in agarose and polyacrylamide gradient gels. In: Analyses of Fats, Oils and Lipoproteins, pp. 573-598 (ed. E.G. Perkins, American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, U.S.A.) (1991).
  • Sisu, E., Flangea,C., Serb,A., Rizzi,A. and Zamfir,A.D. High-performance separation techniques hyphenated to mass spectrometry for ganglioside analysis. Electrophoresis, 32, 1591-1609 (2011).
  • Stocks, J. and Miller,N.E. Capillary electrophoresis to monitor the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins. J. Lipid Res., 39, 1305-1309 (1998).
  • Surowiec, I., Kaml,I. and Kenndler,E. Analysis of drying oils used as binding media for objects of art by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV and conductivity detection. J. Chromatogr. A, 1024, 245-254 (2004).
  • Szucs, R., Verleysen,K., Duchateau,G.S.M.J.E., Sandra,P. and Vandeginste,B.G.M. Analysis of phospholipids in lecithins: comparison between micellar-electrokinetic chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 738, 25-29 (1996).
  • Szucs, R., Vindovogel,J. and Sandra,P. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography of aliphatic compounds with indirect UV detection. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 14, 694-695 (1991).
  • Tadaumi, S., Endo,S., Akagawa,H. and Itabashi,Y. Analysis of fatty acids by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. Bunseki Kagaku, 52, 847-850 (2003).
  • VanderNoot, V.A. and VanRollins,M. Capillary electrophoresis of cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid. 1. Resolution of regioisomers. Anal. Chem., 74, 5859-5865 (2002).
  • VanderNoot, V.A. and VanRollins,M. Capillary electrophoresis of cytochrome p-450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid. 2. Resolution of stereoisomers. Anal. Chem., 74, 5866-5870 (2002).
  • VanRollins, M. and VanderNoot,V.A. Simultaneous resolution of underivatized regioisomers and stereoisomers of arachidonate epoxides by capillary electrophoresis. Anal. Biochem., 313, 106-116 (2003).
  • Verleysen, K. and Sandra,P. Analysis of phospholipids in lecithins. Separation according to hydrophobicity by lowering the temperature. J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 20, 337-339 (1997).
  • Vernez, L., Thormann,W. and Krahenbuhl,S. Analysis of carnitine and acylcarnitines in urine by capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A, 895, 309-316 (2000).
  • Vogt, C., Georgi,A. and Werner,G. Enantiomeric separation of D/L-carnitine using HPLC and CZE after derivatization. Chromatographia, 40, 287-295 (1995).
  • Wan, H., Blomberg,L.G. and Hamberg,M. Highly efficient separation of isomeric epoxy fatty acids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Electrophoresis, 20, 132-137 (1999).
  • Wang, K.L., Jiang, D.C., Sims, C.E. and Allbritton, N.L. Separation of fluorescently labeled phosphoinositides and sphingolipids by capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. B, 907, 79-86 (2012).
  • Wong, Y.F., Saad, B. and Makahleh, A. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection for the determination of cis/trans isomers of octadec-9-enoic acid and other long chain fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. A, 1290, 82-90 (2013).
  • Xu, X.-H., Li,R.-K., Chen,J., Chen,P., Ling,X.-Y. and Rao,P.-F. Quantification of cholesterol in foods using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. B, 768, 369-373 (2002).
  • Yang, Y.L., Chong, C.P., Tsai, M.H. and Liu, M.Y. Analysis of in vitro oxidized human LDL phospholipids by solid-phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Biomed. Chromatogr., 26, 441-448 (2012).
  • Yang, Y.L., Yang,F.L., Jao,S.C., Chen,M.Y., Tsay,S.S., Zou,W. and Wu,S.H. Structural elucidation of phosphoglycolipids from strains of the bacterial thermophiles Thermus and Meiothermus. J. Lipid Res., 47, 1823-1832 (2006).
  • Yoo, Y.S., Kim,Y,S., Jhon,G.-J. and Park,J. Separation of gangliosides using cyclodextrin in capillary zone electrophoresis. J. Chromatogr. A, 652, 431-439 (1993).
  • Yu, Z.L., Chen,Y., Xu,G.Y. and Chang,L.W. Separation and determination of gangliosides using high performance capillary electrophoresis. J. Liqu. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 21, 349-360 (1998).
  • Zamfir, A., Vukelic,Z. and Peter-Katalinic,J. A capillary electrophoresis and off-line capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry approach for ganglioside analysis. Electrophoresis, 23, 2894-2903 (2002).
  • Zhang, L., Hu,S., Cook,L. and Dovichi,N.J. Analysis of aminophospholipid molecular species by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin modified micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Electrophoresis, 23, 3071-3077 (2002).
  • Zhang, L., Krylov,S.N., Hu,S. and Dovichi,N.J. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin modified micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence for separation and detection of phospholipids. J. Chromatogr. A, 894, 129-134 (2000).
  • Zhang, M.Q., Ostrander,G.K. and El Rassi,Z. Capillary electrochromatography with novel stationary phases IV. Retention behavior of glycosphingolipids on porous and non-porous octadecyl sulfonated silica. J. Chromatogr. A, 887, 287-297 (2000).

 

Updated: February 5th, 2014